How to format your references using the Solid Earth Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid Earth Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mottron, L.: Changing perceptions: The power of autism, Nature, 479, 33–35, 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dekkers, M. P. J. and Barde, Y.-A.: Developmental biology. Programmed cell death in neuronal development, Science, 340, 39–41, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reinhard, J., Srinivasan, M. V., and Zhang, S.: Olfaction: scent-triggered navigation in honeybees, Nature, 427, 411, 2004.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Harvey, C. D., Yasuda, R., Zhong, H., and Svoboda, K.: The spread of Ras activity triggered by activation of a single dendritic spine, Science, 321, 136–140, 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hiltscher, G., Mühlthaler, W., and Smits, J.: Industrial Pigging Technology, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2003.
An edited book
Zhang, Q.: Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems, edited by: Liu, C. and Zhang, X., Springer, London, XVI, 236 p. 69 illus., 27 illus. in color pp., 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Blümm, M. and Schmunk, S.: Digital Research Infrastructures: DARIAH, in: 3D Research Challenges in Cultural Heritage II: How to Manage Data and Knowledge Related to Interpretative Digital 3D Reconstructions of Cultural Heritage, edited by: Münster, S., Pfarr-Harfst, M., Kuroczyński, P., and Ioannides, M., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 62–73, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid Earth Discussions.

Blog post
Shark Attacks Are So Unlikely, But So Fascinating:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Internet Privacy: Comparison of Federal Agency Practices With FTC’s Fair Information Principles, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De Ros, K. M.: A content analysis of television ads: Does current practice maximize cognitive processing?, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Meacham, J.: The Man to Blame for Our Culture of Fame, New York Times, 26th April, BR17, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mottron, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Mottron, 2011; Dekkers and Barde, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dekkers and Barde, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Harvey et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid Earth Discussions
AbbreviationSolid Earth Discuss.
ISSN (online)1869-9537

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