How to format your references using the Solid Earth Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid Earth Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sánchez-Lavega, A.: How long is the day on Saturn?, Science, 307(5713), 1223–1224, 2005.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoefel, F. and Elgar, S.: Wave-induced sediment transport and sandbar migration, Science, 299(5614), 1885–1887, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fiser, J., Chiu, C. and Weliky, M.: Small modulation of ongoing cortical dynamics by sensory input during natural vision, Nature, 431(7008), 573–578, 2004.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Varaldi, J., Fouillet, P., Ravallec, M., López-Ferber, M., Boulétreau, M. and Fleury, F.: Infectious behavior in a parasitoid, Science, 302(5652), 1930, 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bock, R.: Handbuch der analytisch-chemischen Aufschlussmethoden, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG., 2005.
An edited book
Reusch, B., Ed.: Computational Intelligence, Theory and Applications: International Conference 8th Fuzzy Days in Dortmund, Germany, Sept. 29–Oct. 01, 2004 Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Oneal, J. R. and Russett, B. M.: The Kantian Peace: The Pacific Benefits of Democracy, Interdependence, and International Organizations, 1885–1992, in Bruce M. Russett: Pioneer in the Scientific and Normative Study of War, Peace, and Policy, edited by H. Starr, pp. 74–108, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid Earth Discussions.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Scientists Set New Record for World’s Coolest Molecule, IFLScience, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Transportation Infrastructure: Highway Pavement Design Guide Is Outdated, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vickovic, S. G.: Medical marijuana and the media, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA., 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L.: Another Summer, Same Dark Stage, New York Times, 19th August, LI2, 2007.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sánchez-Lavega, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Hoefel and Elgar, 2003; Sánchez-Lavega, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hoefel and Elgar, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Varaldi et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid Earth Discussions
AbbreviationSolid Earth Discuss.
ISSN (online)1869-9537

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