How to format your references using the Solid Earth Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid Earth Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miller, D. M.: Neuroscience. Synapses here and not everywhere, Science, 317, 907–908, 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
Adams, D. L. and Horton, J. C.: Shadows cast by retinal blood vessels mapped in primary visual cortex, Science, 298, 572–576, 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jackson, D. E., Holcombe, M., and Ratnieks, F. L. W.: Trail geometry gives polarity to ant foraging networks, Nature, 432, 907–909, 2004.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Shima, S., Pilak, O., Vogt, S., Schick, M., Stagni, M. S., Meyer-Klaucke, W., Warkentin, E., Thauer, R. K., and Ermler, U.: The crystal structure of [Fe]-hydrogenase reveals the geometry of the active site, Science, 321, 572–575, 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hendrick, J.: Law and Ethics in Children’s Nursing, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
Ferrari, M. and Weststrate, N. M. (Eds.): The Scientific Study of Personal Wisdom: From Contemplative Traditions to Neuroscience, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, XIV, 356 p. 13 illus pp., 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Gupta, S. K., Bencurova, E., Srivastava, M., Pahlavan, P., Balkenhol, J., and Dandekar, T.: Improving Re-annotation of Annotated Eukaryotic Genomes, in: Big Data Analytics in Genomics, edited by: Wong, K.-C., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 171–195, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid Earth Discussions.

Blog post
Four ozone-depleting substances discovered:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Protest Against Award of Data Processing and Mailing Contract, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dhantole, G.: Evaluating provision of healthcare system in the U.S, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G.: Empty Gray Gives Way to Blues and Boos, Just Like Before, New York Times, 13th September, D7, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Miller, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Miller, 2007; Adams and Horton, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Adams and Horton, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Shima et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid Earth Discussions
AbbreviationSolid Earth Discuss.
ISSN (online)1869-9537

Other styles