How to format your references using the Solid Earth Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid Earth Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bains, W.: Comment on “Orthographic processing in baboons (Papio papio),” Science, 337, 1173; author reply 1173, 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boles, M. A. and Talapin, D. V.: Chemistry. Connecting the dots, Science, 344, 1340–1341, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun, L., Xie, Z., and Zhao, J.: A 3,000-year record of penguin populations, Nature, 407, 858, 2000.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Rast, J. P., Smith, L. C., Loza-Coll, M., Hibino, T., and Litman, G. W.: Genomic insights into the immune system of the sea urchin, Science, 314, 952–956, 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Langton, R.: Stability and Control of Aircraft Systems, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, England, 2006.
An edited book
Matyáš, V., Fischer-Hübner, S., Cvrček, D., and Švenda, P. (Eds.): The Future of Identity in the Information Society: 4th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/11.6, 11.7/FIDIS International Summer School, Brno, Czech Republic, September 1-7, 2008, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, X, 283 p pp., 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Boulesteix, A.-L.: Which Resampling-Based Error Estimator for Benchmark Studies? A Power Analysis with Application to PLS-LDA, in: The Multiple Facets of Partial Least Squares and Related Methods: PLS, Paris, France, 2014, edited by: Abdi, H., Esposito Vinzi, V., Russolillo, G., Saporta, G., and Trinchera, L., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 45–57, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid Earth Discussions.

Blog post
Pluto’s Moons Are In “Absolute Chaos”:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Record Linkage and Privacy: Issues in Creating New Federal Research and Statistical Information, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Louviere, E. C.: Bonds Behind Bars: The Impact of Program Participation on Interpersonal Inmate Connections in Louisiana State Penitentiary, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M.: THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats -- Clinton and Bush Compete to Be Champion of Change; Democrat Fights Perceptions of Bush Gain, New York Times, 31st October, 11, 1992.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bains, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bains, 2012; Boles and Talapin, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boles and Talapin, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Rast et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid Earth Discussions
AbbreviationSolid Earth Discuss.
ISSN (online)1869-9537

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