How to format your references using the Solid Earth Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid Earth Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lovley, D. R.: Bioremediation. Anaerobes to the rescue, Science, 293(5534), 1444–1446, 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Melnick, J. G. and Parkin, G.: Cleaving mercury-alkyl bonds: a functional model for mercury detoxification by MerB, Science, 317(5835), 225–227, 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wake, H., Lee, P. R. and Fields, R. D.: Control of local protein synthesis and initial events in myelination by action potentials, Science, 333(6049), 1647–1651, 2011.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Huang, L.-C., Pan, X., Yang, H., Wan, L. K. D., Stewart-Jones, G., Dorrell, L. and Ogg, G.: Linking genotype to phenotype on beads: high throughput selection of peptides with biological function, Sci. Rep., 3, 3030, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wind, Y. J. and Hays, C. F.: Beyond Advertising, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ., 2015.
An edited book
Einav, G., Ed.: Transitioned Media: A Turning Point into the Digital Realm, Springer, New York, NY., 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Arnaiz, A., Iung, B., Al-Najjar, B., Jantunen, E., Holmberg, K., Naks, T. and Baglee, D.: A New Integrated E-maintenance Concept, in E-maintenance, edited by K. Holmberg, A. Adgar, A. Arnaiz, E. Jantunen, J. Mascolo, and S. Mekid, pp. 61–82, Springer, London., 2010.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid Earth Discussions.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Britain’s Oldest Surviving Human Brain Was Preserved In Mud For 2,600 Years, IFLScience, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Commercial Aviation: Costs and Major Factors Influencing Infrastructure Changes at U.S. Airports to Accomodate the New A380 Aircraft, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crosby, A. E.: A phenomenological heuristic study of psychosocial factors that contribute to African American females’ HIV seroconversion, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ., 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Forsberg, M. E.: A Hudson Tunnel That Goes One Way, New York Times, 28th October, A33, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lovley, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Lovley, 2001; Melnick and Parkin, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Melnick and Parkin, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid Earth Discussions
AbbreviationSolid Earth Discuss.
ISSN (online)1869-9537

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