How to format your references using the Solid Earth Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid Earth Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koen, D.: Nuts and bolts. International ventures, Nature, 434, 804, 2005.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rohrbach, A. and Schmidt, M. W.: Redox freezing and melting in the Earth’s deep mantle resulting from carbon-iron redox coupling, Nature, 472, 209–212, 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kalab, P., Weis, K., and Heald, R.: Visualization of a Ran-GTP gradient in interphase and mitotic Xenopus egg extracts, Science, 295, 2452–2456, 2002.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Gabor, N. M., Zhong, Z., Bosnick, K., Park, J., and McEuen, P. L.: Extremely efficient multiple electron-hole pair generation in carbon nanotube photodiodes, Science, 325, 1367–1371, 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tebbani, S., Lopes, F., Filali, R., Dumur, D., and Pareau, D.: CO 2 Biofixation by Microalgae, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
Chalasani, N. and Szabo, G. (Eds.): Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Bench to Bedside, Springer International Publishing, Cham, XVI, 372 p. 47 illus., 36 illus. in color pp., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Spears, J. L., Rubio, M. A. T., Sample, P. J., and Alfonzo, J. D.: tRNA Biogenesis and Processing, in: RNA Metabolism in Trypanosomes, edited by: Bindereif, A., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 99–121, 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid Earth Discussions.

Blog post
The Great Barrier Reef’s ‘New Normal’ Is A Forlorn Sight:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Air Force F-22 Embedded Computers, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reddy, G. S.: Modulo Multipliers with Adaptive Delay for a High Dynamic Range Residue Number System Using Booth Encoding, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pareles, J., Ratliff, B., Caramanica, J., Chinen, N., Holden, S., Coscarelli, J., and Ganz, C.: New Chapters From Our Pop Dreams, New York Times, 18th September, AR109, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koen, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Koen, 2005; Rohrbach and Schmidt, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rohrbach and Schmidt, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Gabor et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid Earth Discussions
AbbreviationSolid Earth Discuss.
ISSN (online)1869-9537

Other styles