How to format your references using the Limnology and Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Limnology and Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Steitz, T. A. 2009. Retrospective. Frederic M. Richards (1925-2009). Science 323: 1181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jakosky, B. M., and R. J. Phillips. 2001. Mars’ volatile and climate history. Nature 412: 237–244.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoffecker, J. F., S. A. Elias, and D. H. O’Rourke. 2014. Anthropology. Out of Beringia? Science 343: 979–980.
A journal article with 9 or more authors
Schwechheimer, C., G. Serino, J. Callis, and others. 2001. Interactions of the COP9 signalosome with the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCFTIRI in mediating auxin response. Science 292: 1379–1382.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nagashima, Y. 2013. Elementary Particle Physics, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Cataldo, A. 2011. Broadband Reflectometry for Enhanced Diagnostics and Monitoring Applications, E. De Benedetto and G. Cannazza [eds.]. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sakawa, M., H. Yano, and I. Nishizaki. 2013. Stochastic Linear Programming, p. 149–196. In H. Yano and I. Nishizaki [eds.], Linear and Multiobjective Programming with Fuzzy Stochastic Extensions. Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Limnology and Oceanography.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2017. Martian Resonance Found In 87-Million-Year-Old Rocks Confirms A Chaotic Solar System. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. School Improvement Grants: Education Should Take Additional Steps to Enhance Accountability for Schools and Contractors. GAO-12-373. GAO-12-373 U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baxter, V. P. 2013. Communitarian Leadership Practice Acquisition in Educational Leadership Preparation. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Forsberg, M. E. 2010. A Hudson Tunnel That Goes One Way. New York Times, October 28

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Steitz 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Jakosky and Phillips 2001; Steitz 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jakosky and Phillips 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Schwechheimer et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleLimnology and Oceanography
AbbreviationLimnol. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)0024-3590
ISSN (online)1939-5590
ScopeAquatic Science

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