How to format your references using the Solid Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Randall, L.: Extra dimensions and warped geometries, Science, 296, 1422–1427, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
McCauley, D. W. and Bronner-Fraser, M.: Importance of SoxE in neural crest development and the evolution of the pharynx, Nature, 441, 750–752, 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
Walden, H., Podgorski, M. S., and Schulman, B. A.: Insights into the ubiquitin transfer cascade from the structure of the activating enzyme for NEDD8, Nature, 422, 330–334, 2003.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Fang, Y., Wang, C.-F., Zhang, Z.-H., Shao, H., and Chen, S.: Robust self-healing hydrogels assisted by cross-linked nanofiber networks, Sci. Rep., 3, 2811, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zlokarnik, M.: Scale-up, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2005.
An edited book
Feng, C.: China’s Changing Legal System: Lawyers & Judges on Civil & Criminal Law, edited by: Nelson, L. P. and Simon, T. W., Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, XIX, 264 p pp., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Tian, X. and Cheng, Y.: Inter-Domain AOM and Incremental Deployment, in: Scalable Multicasting over Next-Generation Internet: Design, Analysis and Applications, edited by: Cheng, Y., Springer, New York, NY, 71–101, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid Earth.

Blog post
Sharks Keep Attacking Google’s Deep-Ocean Internet Cables:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Head Start: Research Insufficient to Assess Program Impact, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thomack, A.: Random Harmonic Polynomials, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Whiteside, K. and Lyall, S.: Fans of These Dogs Say Bald Is Beautiful, New York Times, 12th February, D1, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Randall, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Randall, 2002; McCauley and Bronner-Fraser, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McCauley and Bronner-Fraser, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Fang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid Earth
AbbreviationSolid Earth
ISSN (print)1869-9510
ISSN (online)1869-9529
ScopeSoil Science
Earth-Surface Processes
Geochemistry and Petrology

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