How to format your references using the Solid Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brune, H.: CHEMISTRY. In the wake of collision, Science, 350, 1321, 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pollard, P. J. and Ratcliffe, P. J.: Cancer. Puzzling patterns of predisposition, Science, 324, 192–194, 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Biteau, B., Labarre, J., and Toledano, M. B.: ATP-dependent reduction of cysteine-sulphinic acid by S. cerevisiae sulphiredoxin, Nature, 425, 980–984, 2003.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Salamat, A., Deifallah, M., Cabrera, R. Q., Corà, F., and McMillan, P. F.: Identification of new pillared-layered carbon nitride materials at high pressure, Sci. Rep., 3, 2122, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Strachman, D. and Bookbinder, R.: Fund of Funds Investing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2009.
An edited book
Al Najjar, M.: Video Surveillance for Sensor Platforms: Algorithms and Architectures, edited by: Ghantous, M. and Bayoumi, M., Springer, New York, NY, XV, 202 p. 89 illus., 47 illus. in color pp., 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Klaas-Wissing, T. and Tyssen, C.: Managing Within Your Organisation, in: Sustainable Supply Chain Management: Practical Ideas for Moving Towards Best Practice, edited by: Cetinkaya, B., Ewer, G., Klaas-Wissing, T., Piotrowicz, W., and Tyssen, C., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 81–115, 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid Earth.

Blog post
This Eerie Footage Appears To Show The Earth BREATHING:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Survey of Small Businesses’ Reactions to Changes in the Costs of Telephone Service, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shirley, A.: Connecting foster children with their siblings within a summer camp setting: A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B.: Serious Knee Injury Fells Mattek-Sands, New York Times, 7th July, B9, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brune, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Brune, 2015; Pollard and Ratcliffe, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pollard and Ratcliffe, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Salamat et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid Earth
AbbreviationSolid Earth
ISSN (print)1869-9510
ISSN (online)1869-9529
ScopeSoil Science
Earth-Surface Processes
Geochemistry and Petrology

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