How to format your references using the Solid Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adam, D.: Cause is not everything in mental illness, Nature, 511, 509, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kubatko, L. S. and Pearl, D. K.: Evolution. Seeing the trees in your terrace, Science, 333, 411–412, 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Durham, W. M., Kessler, J. O., and Stocker, R.: Disruption of vertical motility by shear triggers formation of thin phytoplankton layers, Science, 323, 1067–1070, 2009.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Srivastava, M., Hegde, M., Chiruvella, K. K., Koroth, J., Bhattacharya, S., Choudhary, B., and Raghavan, S. C.: Sapodilla plum (Achras sapota) induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines and inhibits tumor progression in mice, Sci. Rep., 4, 6147, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, J. C. and Naeim, F.: Basic Structural Dynamics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
Hall, R. (Ed.): Handbook of Healthcare System Scheduling, Springer US, Boston, MA, X, 334 p pp., 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Le Guernic, G.: Information Flow Testing, in: Advances in Computer Science – ASIAN 2007. Computer and Network Security: 12th Asian Computing Science Conference, Doha, Qatar, December 9-11, 2007. Proceedings, edited by: Cervesato, I., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 33–47, 2007.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid Earth.

Blog post
Stunning New Photograph Of Medusa Nebula:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Mass Transit Grants: Development Time Frames for Selected UMTA Projects, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fang, L.: Do media help deter financial misreporting?, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Coscarelli, J., Ryzik, M., and Sisario, B.: Anger, Lawsuits and Inquiry Follow Music Festival’s Failure, New York Times, 21st May, A1, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adam, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Adam, 2014; Kubatko and Pearl, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kubatko and Pearl, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Srivastava et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid Earth
AbbreviationSolid Earth
ISSN (print)1869-9510
ISSN (online)1869-9529
ScopeSoil Science
Earth-Surface Processes
Geochemistry and Petrology

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