How to format your references using the Solid Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morgan, J. A.: Ecology. Looking beneath the surface, Science, 298(5600), 1903–1904, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang, J. and Zhao, Y.: Formation of zirconium metallic glass, Nature, 430(6997), 332–335, 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lykke-Andersen, J., Shu, M. D. and Steitz, J. A.: Communication of the position of exon-exon junctions to the mRNA surveillance machinery by the protein RNPS1, Science, 293(5536), 1836–1839, 2001.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Wenger, O. S., Leigh, B. S., Villahermosa, R. M., Gray, H. B. and Winkler, J. R.: Electron tunneling through organic molecules in frozen glasses, Science, 307(5706), 99–102, 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sadr, A.: Interest Rate Swaps and Their Derivatives, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2009.
An edited book
Pfenning, F., Ed.: Foundations of Software Science and Computation Structures: 16th International Conference, FOSSACS 2013, Held as Part of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2013, Rome, Italy, March 16-24, 2013. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Suoranta, S., Andrade, A. and Aura, T.: Strong Authentication with Mobile Phone, in Information Security: 15th International Conference, ISC 2012, Passau, Germany, September 19-21, 2012. Proceedings, edited by D. Gollmann and F. C. Freiling, pp. 70–85, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid Earth.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: NASA Mission Brings Pluto Into Sharp Focus – but it’s Still Not a Planet, IFLScience, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Education’s Library: Actions Needed to Improve Usefulness, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olson, B. A.: Problem Management: A System Engineering Management Framework, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC., 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, L.: Amanda Pekoe and Christopher Lueck, New York Times, 8th May, ST13, 2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Morgan, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Morgan, 2002; Zhang and Zhao, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang and Zhao, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Wenger et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid Earth
AbbreviationSolid Earth
ISSN (print)1869-9510
ISSN (online)1869-9529
ScopeSoil Science
Earth-Surface Processes
Geochemistry and Petrology

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