How to format your references using the Solid Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q.: Maths adds up for Berlin centre, Nature, 420(6914), 348, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kahane, G. and Shackel, N.: Do abnormal responses show utilitarian bias?, Nature, 452(7185), E5; author reply E5-6, 2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, B., Xu, S. and Wu, L.: Intensified Arabian Sea tropical storms, Nature, 489(7416), E1-2; discussion E2-3, 2012.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Scheffler, M., Dressel, M., Jourdan, M. and Adrian, H.: Extremely slow Drude relaxation of correlated electrons, Nature, 438(7071), 1135–1137, 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Parker, D.: International Valuation Standards, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK., 2016.
An edited book
Machala, Z., Hensel, K. and Akishev, Y., Eds.: Plasma for Bio-Decontamination, Medicine and Food Security, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht., 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Matsuura, T.: Structure of Student Interest in Science and Scientific Literacy: Using the Latent Class Analysis, in International Conference on Science Education 2012 Proceedings: Science Education: Policies and Social Responsibilities, edited by B. Zhang, G. W. Fulmer, X. Liu, W. Hu, S. Peng, and B. Wei, pp. 57–58, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid Earth.

Blog post
Andrews, R.: Deep Ancient Water Is Stopping The Antarctic Ocean From Warming, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Policy Guidance 1963-1986: Interview With Donald J. Horan, Eugene L. Pahl, and Allen R. Voss, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Singh, K. K.: An 8-PSK receiver using LNA & SRO: Design and mathematical analysis, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA., 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E.: Have Guitar, Will Picket, New York Times, 12th October, 148, 1997.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kahane and Shackel, 2008; Schiermeier, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kahane and Shackel, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Scheffler et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid Earth
AbbreviationSolid Earth
ISSN (print)1869-9510
ISSN (online)1869-9529
ScopeSoil Science
Earth-Surface Processes
Geochemistry and Petrology

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