How to format your references using the Progress in Natural Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Natural Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Watzman H. Israel debates raising commitment to CERN. European Laboratory for Particle Physics. Nature. 2000 May 11;405(6783):109.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Rockström J, Falkenmark M. Agriculture: increase water harvesting in Africa. Nature. 2015 Mar 19;519(7543):283–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Kamat SS, Williams HJ, Raushel FM. Intermediates in the transformation of phosphonates to phosphate by bacteria. Nature. 2011 Nov 16;480(7378):570–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Weiss DJ, Nelson A, Gibson HS, Temperley W, Peedell S, Lieber A, et al. A global map of travel time to cities to assess inequalities in accessibility in 2015. Nature. 2018 Jan 18;553(7688):333–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Khouw MC, Guthner MW. The Options Edge + Free Trial. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
1.
Gallopoulos E. Parallelism in Matrix Computations. 1st ed. 2016. Philippe B, Sameh AH, editors. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2016. XXX, 473 p. 58 illus. (Scientific Computation).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Rim K. Paradigm Shift and Challenges for Korean Industry: Case Study of Samsung. In: Mahlich JC, Pascha W, editors. Innovation and Technology in Korea: Challenges of a Newly Advanced Economy. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD; 2007. p. 59–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Natural Science.

Blog post
1.
Bedell-Pearce H. Mysterious 15 Meter Sea Creature Found In Indonesia. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Cost Information on the Desegregation of the School Systems in Mobile County and Wilcox County, Alabama. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972 Oct. Report No.: B-164031(1).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Nasiriamini S. The need for adaptive network application architectures [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Chira S. Protests Carry Echoes of South Korea’s Past. New York Times. 2016 Dec 10;A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Natural Science
ISSN (print)1002-0071
Scope

Other styles