How to format your references using the Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Kouwenhoven, Nanotechnology. Bouncing a C60 ball, Nature. 407 (2000) 35–36.
A journal article with 2 authors
L.A.C.J. Voesenek, R. Pierik, Plant science. Plant stress profiles, Science. 320 (2008) 880–881.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Watanabe, J.E. Náñez, Y. Sasaki, Perceptual learning without perception, Nature. 413 (2001) 844–848.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.J. Parkes, G. Webster, B.A. Cragg, A.J. Weightman, C.J. Newberry, T.G. Ferdelman, J. Kallmeyer, B.B. Jørgensen, I.W. Aiello, J.C. Fry, Deep sub-seafloor prokaryotes stimulated at interfaces over geological time, Nature. 436 (2005) 390–394.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Bamfield, Research and Development in the Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industry, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2006.
An edited book
H. Kohl, Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation, Springer, New York, NY, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Schwarzwald, E.M. Collins, S. Gillespie, A.I.A. Spinks-Franklin, Future Health Implications, in: E.M. Collins, S. Gillespie, A.I.A. Spinks-Franklin (Eds.), International Adoption and Clinical Practice, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 49–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Gates Foundation Will Require All Funded Research To Be Open Access, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Proprietary Schools: Stronger Department of Education Oversight Needed to Help Ensure Only Eligible Students Receive Federal Student Aid, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L.A. Lowry, Creative Aging in Senior Centers: A Grounded Theory Study, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
A.L. Baker, Push to Rid City of Classrooms That Are Anything but Temporary, New York Times. (2014) A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
AbbreviationSol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells
ISSN (print)0927-0248
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Other styles