How to format your references using the Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Lienhardt, Fundamental research is the key to eliminating TB, Nature. 507 (2014) 401.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Tsubouchi, G.S. Roeder, A synaptonemal complex protein promotes homology-independent centromere coupling, Science. 308 (2005) 870–873.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.J. Levey, R.S. Duncan, C.F. Levins, Animal behaviour: use of dung as a tool by burrowing owls, Nature. 431 (2004) 39.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Hu, Li Ls, W. Yang, L. Manna, Wang Lw, A.P. Alivisatos, Linearly polarized emission from colloidal semiconductor quantum rods, Science. 292 (2001) 2060–2063.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Thornicroft, M. Semrau, A. Alem, R.E. Drake, H. Ito, J. Mari, P. McGeorge, R. Thara, Community Mental Health, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2011.
An edited book
I. Linkov, R.J. Wenning, G.A. Kiker, eds., Managing Critical Infrastructure Risks: Decision Tools and Applications for Port Security, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
J.S. Levenson, C.P. Vicencio, Residence Restrictions, in: E.L. Jeglic, C. Calkins (Eds.), Sexual Violence: Evidence Based Policy and Prevention, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 51–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Our Ideas Of How Blood Forms Have Just Been Turned On Their Head, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Women in the Workplace: An Annotated Bibliography, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.W. Ho, Music genre on the move: Discourse and the cultural production of Japanese visual rock in Hong Kong, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Kelly, From Misfit With Blog To Author With Deal, New York Times. (2012) A31B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
AbbreviationSol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells
ISSN (print)0927-0248
ScopeRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Other styles