How to format your references using the Ecological Restoration citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Restoration. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wirth, B. D. 2007. Materials science. How does radiation damage materials? Science (New York, N.Y.) 318:923–924.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gong, F. and C. Yanofsky. 2002. Instruction of translating ribosome by nascent peptide. Science (New York, N.Y.) 297:1864–1867.
A journal article with 3 authors
Crespo-Hernández, C. E., B. Cohen, and B. Kohler. 2005. Base stacking controls excited-state dynamics in A.T DNA. Nature 436:1141–1144.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
McLellan, J. S., X. Zheng, G. Hauk, R. Ghirlando, P. A. Beachy, and D. J. Leahy. 2008. The mode of Hedgehog binding to Ihog homologues is not conserved across different phyla. Nature 455:979–983.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bennett, M. K. 1995. Affine and Projective Geometry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Monti, M. M. and W. G. Sannita, editors. 2016. Brain Function and Responsiveness in Disorders of Consciousness. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Suleman, H., K. Feng, S. Mhlongo, and M. Omar. 2005. Flexing Digital Library Systems. Pages 33–37 in E. A. Fox, E. J. Neuhold, P. Premsmit, and V. Wuwongse (eds), Digital Libraries: Implementing Strategies and Sharing Experiences: 8th International Conference on Asian Digital Libraries, ICADL 2005, Bangkok, Thailand, December 12-15, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Restoration.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2016, June 12. Here’s What Eating Junk Food Does To Your Gut BacteriaIFLScience. : IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. ADP Modernization: Health Care Financing Administration’s Software Redesign Contract. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson, P. M. 2012. Persistent Genomic Consequences of Prenatal Nicotine Exposure Measured in Adolescent Rat Brain. Doctoral dissertation, : George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. 2006, August 27. Jets Overhead, Noise Complaints Below. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wirth 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Gong and Yanofsky 2002, Wirth 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gong and Yanofsky 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (McLellan et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Restoration
ISSN (print)1522-4740
ISSN (online)1543-4079
ScopeNature and Landscape Conservation

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