How to format your references using the Ecological Restoration citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Restoration. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hellemans, A. 2002. Getting into good company. Nature 416:5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wolff, S. and A. Dillin. 2014. Cell biology: The stressful influence of microbes. Nature 508:328–329.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weil, D., M. Graham, and A. Fung. 2013. Science and regulation. Targeting transparency. Science (New York, N.Y.) 340:1410–1411.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bond-Lamberty, B., S. D. Peckham, D. E. Ahl, and S. T. Gower. 2007. Fire as the dominant driver of central Canadian boreal forest carbon balance. Nature 450:89–92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nguyen, T. H. 2016. Leaders and Innovators. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Long, T. E., B. Voit, and O. Okay, editors. 2015. Porous Carbons – Hyperbranched Polymers – Polymer Solvation. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Tomlinson, S. E., R. Lewis, and M. J. Carré. 2008. Friction between Players’ Hands and Sports Equipment (P7). Pages 27–34 in P. Brisson (ed), The Engineering of Sport 7: Vol. 1. Paris: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Restoration.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2016, October 28. Hidden Layers Have Been Found In The Tomb Of Jesus ChristIFLScience. : IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Aircraft Noise: Eight Airports’ Efforts to Mitigate Noise. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ugwu, R. I. 2012. Perceptions of elementary teachers from an urban school district in Southern California regarding their inquiry-based science instructional practices, assessment methods, and professional development. Doctoral dissertation, : Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. 2013, January 9. Musburger Criticized for Remarks About Star’s Girlfriend During Title Game. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hellemans 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Hellemans 2002, Wolff and Dillin 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wolff and Dillin 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Bond-Lamberty et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Restoration
ISSN (print)1522-4740
ISSN (online)1543-4079
ScopeNature and Landscape Conservation

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