How to format your references using the Ecological Restoration citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Restoration. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Remer, L. A. 2014. Atmospheric science. Just add aerosols. Science (New York, N.Y.) 344:1089.
A journal article with 2 authors
Riddihough, G. and L. M. Zahn. 2010. Epigenetics. What is epigenetics? Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.) 330:611.
A journal article with 3 authors
Davies, A., A. E. S. Kemp, and J. Pike. 2009. Late Cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the Arctic. Nature 460:254–258.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xu, Y., X. Tao, B. Shen, T. Horng, R. Medzhitov, J. L. Manley, and L. Tong. 2000. Structural basis for signal transduction by the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains. Nature 408:111–115.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
“MAX” Maxfield, C. and A. Brown. 2005. The Definitive Guide to How Computers Do Math. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kordon, F. and J. Sztipanovits, editors. 2007. Reliable Systems on Unreliable Networked Platforms: 12th Monterey Workshop 2005, Laguna Beach, CA, USA, September 22-24, 2005. Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Barton, A. and S. Mayboroda. 2016. Higher-Order Elliptic Equations in Non-Smooth Domains: a Partial Survey. Pages 55–121 in M. C. Pereyra, S. Marcantognini, A. M. Stokolos, and W. Urbina (eds), Harmonic Analysis, Partial Differential Equations, Complex Analysis, Banach Spaces, and Operator Theory (Volume 1): Celebrating Cora Sadosky’s life. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Restoration.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2014, June 16. Titanium Dioxide Roofs Could Fight Air PollutionIFLScience. : IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. U.S. Involvement at Major International Air Shows Principally Depends on Agencies’ Missions and Aerospace Companies’ Resources. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Otarola, A. C. 2008. The effects of turbulence in an absorbing atmosphere on the propagation of microwave signals used in an active sounding system. Doctoral dissertation, : University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, J. and E. Povoledo. 2017, March 25. E.U. Leaders Project Unity, Despite Concerns of Failure. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Remer 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Riddihough and Zahn 2010, Remer 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Riddihough and Zahn 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Xu et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Restoration
ISSN (print)1522-4740
ISSN (online)1543-4079
ScopeNature and Landscape Conservation

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