How to format your references using the Ecological Restoration citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Restoration. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Siegel, J. M. 2005. Clues to the functions of mammalian sleep. Nature 437:1264–1271.
A journal article with 2 authors
Finkelstein, I. and E. Piasetzky. 2003. Comment on “14C dates from Tel Rehov: Iron-Age chronology, pharaohs, and Hebrew kings.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302:568; author reply 568.
A journal article with 3 authors
Linnerooth-Bayer, J., R. Mechler, and G. Pflug. 2005. Refocusing disaster aid. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309:1044–1046.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yue, L., J. B. Peng, M. A. Hediger, and D. E. Clapham. 2001. CaT1 manifests the pore properties of the calcium-release-activated calcium channel. Nature 410:705–709.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lui, S. H. 2011. Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
García Márquez, F. P. and B. Lev, editors. 2015. Advanced Business Analytics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Furneaux, B. 2012. Task-Technology Fit Theory: A Survey and Synopsis of the Literature. Pages 87–106 in Y. K. Dwivedi, M. R. Wade, and S. L. Schneberger (eds), Information Systems Theory: Explaining and Predicting Our Digital Society, Vol. 1. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Restoration.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015, February 13. Does Global Warming Mean More Or Less Snow?IFLScience. : IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Electronic Health Records: HHS Strategy to Address Information Exchange Challenges Lacks Specific Prioritized Actions and Milestones. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bissell, G. H. 2011. Working in the transference as a multicultural intervention. Doctoral dissertation, : Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. 2013, September 2. A Roof Is Planned, but It’s a Waiting Game for Fans and Players. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Siegel 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Finkelstein and Piasetzky 2003, Siegel 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Finkelstein and Piasetzky 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Yue et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Restoration
ISSN (print)1522-4740
ISSN (online)1543-4079
ScopeNature and Landscape Conservation

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