How to format your references using the Ecological Restoration citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Restoration. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCabe, H. 2000. France sets up elite Internet school. Nature 405:381.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gonnermann, H. M. and S. Mukhopadhyay. 2009. Preserving noble gases in a convecting mantle. Nature 459:560–563.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deslauriers, L., E. Schelew, and C. Wieman. 2011. Improved learning in a large-enrollment physics class. Science (New York, N.Y.) 332:862–864.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Smart, N., S. Bollini, K. N. Dubé, J. M. Vieira, B. Zhou, S. Davidson, D. Yellon, J. Riegler, A. N. Price, M. F. Lythgoe, W. T. Pu, and P. R. Riley. 2011. De novo cardiomyocytes from within the activated adult heart after injury. Nature 474:640–644.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wolf, E. L. 2012. Nanophysics of Solar and Renewable Energy. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Su, C.-Y., S. Rakheja, and H. Liu, editors. 2012. Intelligent Robotics and Applications: 5th International Conference, ICIRA 2012, Montreal, Canada, October 3-5, 2012, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mantecón, T., C. R. del-Blanco, F. Jaureguizar, and N. García. 2016. Hand Gesture Recognition Using Infrared Imagery Provided by Leap Motion Controller. Pages 47–57 in J. Blanc-Talon, C. Distante, W. Philips, D. Popescu, and P. Scheunders (eds), Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems: 17th International Conference, ACIVS 2016, Lecce, Italy, October 24-27, 2016, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Restoration.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2014, April 29. Alligator Snapping Turtle Split into Three Separate SpeciesIFLScience. : IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Battlefield Automation: Field Artillery Data Systems Acquisition Problems and Budget Impacts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Armstrong, A. 2008. Tactic-Based Learning for collective learning systems. Doctoral dissertation, : George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. 2016, May 20. ‘Roots,’ the Series That Had Everyone Talking. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McCabe 2000).
This sentence cites two references (McCabe 2000, Gonnermann and Mukhopadhyay 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gonnermann and Mukhopadhyay 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Smart et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Restoration
ISSN (print)1522-4740
ISSN (online)1543-4079
ScopeNature and Landscape Conservation

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