How to format your references using the Ecological Restoration citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Restoration. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q. 2002. Postdoc positions axed as economic crisis takes its toll. Nature 420:452.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, M. S. and M. C. White. 2007. A predictably selective aliphatic C-H oxidation reaction for complex molecule synthesis. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318:783–787.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brockmann, D., L. Hufnagel, and T. Geisel. 2006. The scaling laws of human travel. Nature 439:462–465.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xu, H., Z. Zhang, R. Shi, H. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Wang, and L.-M. Peng. 2013. Batch-fabricated high-performance graphene Hall elements. Scientific reports 3:1207.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gadd, K. 2011. TRIZ for Engineers: Enabling Inventive Problem Solving. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Reniers, G. 2013. Using Game Theory to Improve Safety within Chemical Industrial Parks. Page (Y. Pavlova, editor). London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hesse, H. and R. Hoefgen. 2008. Metabolism of Methionine in Plants and Phototrophic Bacteria. Pages 93–110 in R. Hell, C. Dahl, D. Knaff, and T. Leustek (eds), Sulfur Metabolism in Phototrophic Organisms. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Restoration.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014, March 13. Scientists Develop A Way To Visualise The Brain In Real-TimeIFLScience. : IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. NASA: Challenges in Completing and Sustaining the International Space Station. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hardin, J. 2010. A study of social cognitive theory: The relationship between professional learning communities and collective teacher efficacy in international school settings. Doctoral dissertation, : Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J. 2017, January 27. Ordinary People. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Schiermeier 2002, Chen and White 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen and White 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Xu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Restoration
ISSN (print)1522-4740
ISSN (online)1543-4079
ScopeNature and Landscape Conservation

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