How to format your references using the Soins citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soins. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leadlay PF. Structural biology: enzyme assembly line pictured. Nature 2014;510:482–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grüter T, Carbon C-C. Neuroscience. Escaping attention. Science 2010;328:435–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koren I, Dagan G, Altaratz O. From aerosol-limited to invigoration of warm convective clouds. Science 2014;344:1143–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sharma CM, Hoffmann S, Darfeuille F, Reignier J, Findeiss S, Sittka A, et al. The primary transcriptome of the major human pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Nature 2010;464:250–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harris M. Inside the Crystal Ball. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Shiozawa Y. Artificial Market Experiments with the U-Mart System. vol. 4. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Furukawa K, Matsumoto Y, Zhang Q, Furukawa K. Gangliosides Regulate Tumor Properties: With Focus on the Suppression of Metastasis-Associated ppGalNAc-T13 with GM1. In: Suzuki T, Ohtsubo K, Taniguchi N, editors. Sugar Chains: Decoding the Functions of Glycans, Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015, p. 55–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soins.

Blog post
Andrew E. Why haven’t we encountered aliens yet? The answer could be climate change. IFLScience 2014.’t-we-encountered-aliens-yet-answer-could-be-climate-change/ (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. A Bibliography of Documents Issued by the GAO on Matters Related to: Health. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Charles J-G. African American Ninth-Grade Students’ Engagement and Learning in Mathematics: A Case Study of Parent-Teacher Collaboration. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Antilla S. Fighting the Old Boys’ Club. New York Times 2014:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSoins
ISSN (print)0038-0814
ScopeGeneral Medicine
General Nursing

Other styles