How to format your references using the Behaviour citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behaviour. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Braxton, J.M. (2012). Education: Make mentorship matter– Nature 487: 165–166.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bridson, R. & Batty, C. (2010). Computer science. Computational physics in film– Science 330: 1756–1757.
A journal article with 3 authors
Healy, D., Jones, R.R., & Holdsworth, R.E. (2006). Three-dimensional brittle shear fracturing by tensile crack interaction– Nature 439: 64–67.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Vigolo, B., Coulon, C., Maugey, M., Zakri, C., & Poulin, P. (2005). An experimental approach to the percolation of sticky nanotubes– Science 309: 920–923.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perera, A.H. & Buse, L.J. (2014). Ecology of Wildfire Residuals in Boreal Forests. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Hoe, L.V. (2006). MR Cholangiopancreatography: Atlas with Cross-Sectional Imaging Correlation– (D. Vanbeckevoort, K. Mermuys, & W. V. Steenbergen, Eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kusuoka, S. (2007). A remark on law invariant convex risk measures– In: Advances in Mathematical Economics (Kusuoka, S. & Yamazaki, A., eds). Springer Japan, Tokyo, p. 91–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behaviour.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 8). Anxiety can be Inherited from your Parents– IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978). Comments on Legislation To Establish a Department of Education (No. B-149737). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, B.L. (2017). A Qualitative Study of Veteran Students’ Perspectives of Their Academic Experiences (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M. (2017, June 20). When the Job Is a Never-Ending Signal Malfunction– New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Braxton, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bridson & Batty, 2010; Braxton, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bridson & Batty, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Healy, Jones, & Holdsworth, 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Vigolo et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehaviour
ISSN (print)0005-7959
ISSN (online)1568-539X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Behavioral Neuroscience

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