How to format your references using the Behaviour citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behaviour. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Giles, J. (2001). Mad cow disease comes to Japan– Nature 413: 240.
A journal article with 2 authors
Enquist, B.J. & Niklas, K.J. (2001). Invariant scaling relations across tree-dominated communities– Nature 410: 655–660.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rigol, M., Dunjko, V., & Olshanii, M. (2008). Thermalization and its mechanism for generic isolated quantum systems– Nature 452: 854–858.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Devireddy, L.R., Teodoro, J.G., Richard, F.A., & Green, M.R. (2001). Induction of apoptosis by a secreted lipocalin that is transcriptionally regulated by IL-3 deprivation– Science 293: 829–834.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alberty, R.A. (2011). Enzyme Kinetics: Rapid-Equilibrium Enzyme Kinetics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kalia, S. & Fu, S.-Y., eds (2013). Polymers at Cryogenic Temperatures. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ingolfo, S., Siena, A., & Mylopoulos, J. (2011). Establishing Regulatory Compliance for Software Requirements– In: Conceptual Modeling – ER 2011: 30th International Conference, ER 2011, Brussels, Belgium, October 31 - November 3, 2011. Proceedings (Jeusfeld, M., Delcambre, L., & Ling, T.-W., eds). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, p. 47–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behaviour.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2017, February 28). Scientists Create Electric Circuits Inside Plants– IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). Tactical Airlift: Issues Concerning Air Force Plans for Pacific Distribution System (No. NSIAD-89-81). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crump, S. (2015). The efficacy of an academic behavior assessment tool for the functional behavior assessment process (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis, J. (2016, December 8). In Debt, but Undaunted, a Mother Finds Her Home– New York Times, p. A28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Giles, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Enquist & Niklas, 2001; Giles, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Enquist & Niklas, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Rigol, Dunjko, & Olshanii, 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Devireddy et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehaviour
ISSN (print)0005-7959
ISSN (online)1568-539X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Behavioral Neuroscience

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