How to format your references using the Behaviour citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behaviour. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goodman, S. (2004). Getting mobile in Europe– Nature 427: 868–869.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steinhardt, P.J. & Turok, N. (2002). A cyclic model of the universe– Science 296: 1436–1439.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rubenstein, M., Cornejo, A., & Nagpal, R. (2014). Robotics. Programmable self-assembly in a thousand-robot swarm– Science 345: 795–799.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Hocking, W.K., Carey-Smith, T., Tarasick, D.W., Argall, P.S., Strong, K., Rochon, Y., Zawadzki, I., & Taylor, P.A. (2007). Detection of stratospheric ozone intrusions by windprofiler radars– Nature 450: 281–284.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wernecke, R. (2003). Industrielle Feuchtemessung. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Lo Re, G. & Midiri, M., eds (2016). Crohn’s Disease: Radiological Features and Clinical-Surgical Correlations. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Cartwright, D. (2016). Excluded Homeomorphism Types for Dual Complexes of Surfaces– In: Nonarchimedean and Tropical Geometry (Baker, M. & Payne, S., eds). Springer International Publishing, Cham, p. 133–144.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behaviour.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2017, June 8). Video: Bear Breaks Into House, Plays Piano Whilst Family Are Out– IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008). Commercial Drivers: Certification Process for Drivers with Serious Medical Conditions (No. GAO-08-1030T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Denny, H.M. (2012). Impact of Occupational Health Interventions in Indonesia (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. (2012, March 27). New Ideas On Pensions: Use States– New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goodman, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Steinhardt & Turok, 2002; Goodman, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Steinhardt & Turok, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Rubenstein, Cornejo, & Nagpal, 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hocking et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehaviour
ISSN (print)0005-7959
ISSN (online)1568-539X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Behavioral Neuroscience

Other styles