How to format your references using the Behaviour citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behaviour. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2003). Wrapped in red tape– Nature 423: 783.
A journal article with 2 authors
Winslow, M.M. & Crabtree, G.R. (2005). Immunology. Decoding calcium signaling– Science 307: 56–57.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brohawn, S.G., Campbell, E.B., & MacKinnon, R. (2014). Physical mechanism for gating and mechanosensitivity of the human TRAAK K+ channel– Nature 516: 126–130.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Matsuo, T., Yamaguchi, S., Mitsui, S., Emi, A., Shimoda, F., & Okamura, H. (2003). Control mechanism of the circadian clock for timing of cell division in vivo– Science 302: 255–259.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gostick, A. & Elton, C. (2006). Führen mit Möhren. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Hirsch, F. (2011). Peacocks and Associated Martingales, with Explicit Constructions– (C. Profeta, B. Roynette, & M. Yor, Eds.). Springer, Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Talani, L.S. (2016). Neo-Gramscians and IPE: A Socio-Economic Understanding of Transnationalism, Hegemony and Civil Society– In: The Palgrave Handbook of Critical International Political Economy (Cafruny, A., Talani, L.S., & Pozo Martin, G., eds). Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, p. 67–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behaviour.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, July 14). NASA Footage Shows Strange “Black Hole” In The Sun– IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). Truck Safety: Information on Driver Training (No. RCED-89-163). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whitman, S. (2012). Operational risk and financial institution leaders’ decision making: A quantitative descriptive correlation study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2013, August 27). Rhythmic Gymnastics Judges Cleared– New York Times, p. B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2003; Winslow & Crabtree, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Winslow & Crabtree, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Brohawn, Campbell, & MacKinnon, 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Matsuo et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehaviour
ISSN (print)0005-7959
ISSN (online)1568-539X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Behavioral Neuroscience

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