How to format your references using the Behaviour citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behaviour. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Quintana-Murci, L. (2012). Genetics. Gene losses in the human genome– Science 335: 806–807.
A journal article with 2 authors
Feld, J.J. & Hoofnagle, J.H. (2005). Mechanism of action of interferon and ribavirin in treatment of hepatitis C– Nature 436: 967–972.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miller, R.F., Cloutier, R., & Turner, S. (2003). The oldest articulated chondrichthyan from the Early Devonian period– Nature 425: 501–504.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Ming, G.-L., Wong, S.T., Henley, J., Yuan, X.-B., Song, H.-J., Spitzer, N.C., & Poo, M.-M. (2002). Adaptation in the chemotactic guidance of nerve growth cones– Nature 417: 411–418.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, J.T. (1999). Methods of Geometry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Brain, R.M., Cohen, R.S., & Knudsen, O., eds (2007). Hans Christian Ørsted And The Romantic Legacy In Science: Ideas, Disciplines, Practices. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, Vol. 241.
A chapter in an edited book
Montijano, E. & Sagüés, C. (2015). Fast Consensus with Chebyshev Polynomials– In: Distributed Consensus with Visual Perception in Multi-Robot Systems (Sagüés, C., ed). Springer International Publishing, Cham, p. 89–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behaviour.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 22). Scientists Read Ancient Magnetic Memories Contained Within Meteorites– IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995). University Research: U.S. Reimbursement of Tuition Costs for University Employee Family Members (No. NSIAD-95-19). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bowmar, J.S. (2012). Building Energy Efficiency and Resilience in the United States, One Disaster at a Time: Fostering Green Building Principles through Disaster Assistance (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rohan, T. (2014, February 2). Before Hitting and Fielding, Young Mets Seek Edge by Running and Stretching– New York Times, p. SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Quintana-Murci, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Feld & Hoofnagle, 2005; Quintana-Murci, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Feld & Hoofnagle, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Miller, Cloutier, & Turner, 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ming et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehaviour
ISSN (print)0005-7959
ISSN (online)1568-539X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Behavioral Neuroscience

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