How to format your references using the Behaviour citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Behaviour. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Franklin, A.D. (2013). Electronics: the road to carbon nanotube transistors– Nature 498: 443–444.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sonnenburg, E.D. & Sonnenburg, J.L. (2015). Nutrition: A personal forecast– Nature 528: 484–486.
A journal article with 3 authors
Houchmandzadeh, B., Wieschaus, E., & Leibler, S. (2002). Establishment of developmental precision and proportions in the early Drosophila embryo– Nature 415: 798–802.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Miller, S.A., Collettini, C., Chiaraluce, L., Cocco, M., Barchi, M., & Kaus, B.J.P. (2004). Aftershocks driven by a high-pressure CO2 source at depth– Nature 427: 724–727.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ziska, L.H. & Dukes, J.S. (2010). Weed Biology and Climate Change. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Šimko, J. (2014). Semantic Acquisition Games: Harnessing Manpower for Creating Semantics– (M. Bieliková, Ed.). Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Eessaar, E. (2008). On Metamodel-Based Design of Software Metrics– In: Balancing Agility and Formalism in Software Engineering: Second IFIP TC 2 Central and East European Conference on Software Engineering Techniques, CEE-SET 2007, Poznan, Poland, October 10-12, 2007, Revised Selected Papers (Meyer, B., Nawrocki, J.R., & Walter, B., eds). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, p. 40–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Behaviour.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, March 18). Andrei Linde Receives News About Gravitational Wave Breakthrough– IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995). USDA Telecommunications (No. AIMD-95-219R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tang, Y. (2009). Structure tailored properties and functionalities of zero-dimensional nanostructures (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, October 7). Cubs Open Title Defense With a One-Two Punch by Bryant and Rizzo– New York Times, p. D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Franklin, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Franklin, 2013; Sonnenburg & Sonnenburg, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sonnenburg & Sonnenburg, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Houchmandzadeh, Wieschaus, & Leibler, 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Miller et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleBehaviour
ISSN (print)0005-7959
ISSN (online)1568-539X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Behavioral Neuroscience

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