How to format your references using the Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Wadman: Nature, 2001, vol. 412, p. 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Lucht and D. Rosskopf: Science, 2008, vol. 321, pp. 200; author reply 200.
A journal article with 3 authors
N.A. Bishop, T. Lu, and B.A. Yankner: Nature, 2010, vol. 464, pp. 529–35.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Choudhury, T. Suzuki, Y. Tokura, and Y. Taguchi: Sci. Rep., 2014, vol. 4, p. 7544.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Barbaroux, A. Attour, and E. Schenk: Knowledge Management and Innovation, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
B. Murgante, O. Gervasi, A. Iglesias, D. Taniar, and B.O. Apduhan, eds.: Computational Science and Its Applications - ICCSA 2011: International Conference, Santander, Spain, June 20-23, 2011. Proceedings, Part I, vol. 6782, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Parrochia and P. Neuville: in Towards a General Theory of Classifications, P. Neuville, ed., Springer, Basel, 2013, pp. 93–124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A.

Blog post
E. Andrew: Depression Doesn’t Spread Like A Disease, But Good Moods Do, (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Offshoring: U.S. Semiconductor and Software Industries Increasingly Produce in China and India, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Coyle: Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Craig and D.W. Chen: New York Times, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMetallurgical and Materials Transactions A
AbbreviationMetall. Mater. Trans. A
ISSN (print)1073-5623
ISSN (online)1543-1940
ScopeMechanics of Materials
Metals and Alloys
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles