How to format your references using the Soil Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soil Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macfarlane, R. Environment: New Words on the Wild. Nature 2013, 498, 166–167.
A journal article with 2 authors
Catalan, G.; Scott, J.F. Magnetoelectrics: Is CdCr2S4 a Multiferroic Relaxor? Nature 2007, 448, E4-5; discussion E5-6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thomas, D.S.G.; Knight, M.; Wiggs, G.F.S. Remobilization of Southern African Desert Dune Systems by Twenty-First Century Global Warming. Nature 2005, 435, 1218–1221.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Irwin, R.P., 3rd; Maxwell, T.A.; Howard, A.D.; Craddock, R.A.; Leverington, D.W. A Large Paleolake Basin at the Head of Ma’adim Vallis, Mars. Science 2002, 296, 2209–2212.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Borchard-Tuch, C.; Groß, M. Was Biotronik Alles Kann; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, FRG, 2005; ISBN 9783527602704.
An edited book
Baranzini, M. A Compendium of Italian Economists at Oxbridge: Contributions to the Evolution of Economic Thinking; Mirante, A., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319322186.
A chapter in an edited book
Biswas, P.; Langdon, P. Inclusive User Modeling and Simulation. In A Multimodal End-2-End Approach to Accessible Computing; Biswas, P., Duarte, C., Langdon, P., Almeida, L., Eds.; Human–Computer Interaction Series; Springer: London, 2015; pp. 91–110 ISBN 9781447167075.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soil Processes.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Why Cheaters Don’t Prosper Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Welfare Reform: Improving State Automated Systems Requires Coordinated Federal Effort; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2000;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Addington, L.M. Students’ Preferences for Information Sources during the Undergraduate College Search Process: The Influence of Technology. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. Justices Rule on Retroactivity of Decisions. New York Times 2008, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSoil Processes
ISSN (online)2411-5126

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