How to format your references using the Soil Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soil Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haroche, S. The secrets of my prizewinning research. Nature 2012, 490, 311.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ferraro, P.J.; Kiss, A. Ecology. Direct payments to conserve biodiversity. Science 2002, 298, 1718–1719.
A journal article with 3 authors
Green, E.D.; Guyer, M.S.; National Human Genome Research Institute Charting a course for genomic medicine from base pairs to bedside. Nature 2011, 470, 204–213.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schmidt, M.; Kahlert, U.; Wessolleck, J.; Maciaczyk, D.; Merkt, B.; Maciaczyk, J.; Osterholz, J.; Nikkhah, G.; Steinhauser, M.O. Characterization of a setup to test the impact of high-amplitude pressure waves on living cells. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 3849.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anstädt, T.; Keller, I.; Lutz, H. Intelligente Videoanalyse; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2010; ISBN 9783527632961.
An edited book
Machine Learning for Multimodal Interaction: First International Workshop, MLMI 2004, Martigny, Switzerland, June 21-23, 2004, Revised Selected Papers; Bengio, S., Bourlard, H., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005; Vol. 3361; ISBN 9783540245094.
A chapter in an edited book
Schogt, P. The Wild Number Problem: Math or Fiction? In Imagine Math 2: Between Culture and Mathematics; Emmer, M., Ed.; Springer: Milano, 2013; pp. 31–38 ISBN 9788847028883.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soil Processes.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Antioxidants Can Make Cancers Worse (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office GAO ADP Data Lines: Issue No. 1; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1983;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Elizalde, K. Relationship between Latino adolescents and their mental health well-being: A quantitative study. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. More Than Just a Deli. New York Times 2010, NJ11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSoil Processes
ISSN (online)2411-5126

Other styles