How to format your references using the Soil Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soil Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aubert, J. PLANETARY SCIENCE. Ancient planetary dynamos, take two. Science 2015, 349, 475–476.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kuroda, H.; Maliga, P. The plastid clpP1 protease gene is essential for plant development. Nature 2003, 425, 86–89.
A journal article with 3 authors
Croon, M.B.; Hillier, J.K.; Sclater, J.G. Comment on “Mantle flow drives the subsidence of oceanic plates.” Science 2011, 331, 1011; author reply 1011.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Colwell, R.K.; Brehm, G.; Cardelús, C.L.; Gilman, A.C.; Longino, J.T. Global warming, elevational range shifts, and lowland biotic attrition in the wet tropics. Science 2008, 322, 258–261.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Britton, M. YouthNation; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781119162469.
An edited book
Jellyfish Blooms: Causes, Consequences, and Recent Advances: Proceedings of the Second International Jellyfish Blooms Symposium, held at the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, 24–27 June, 2007; Pitt, K.A., Purcell, J.E., Eds.; Developments in Hydrobiology; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2009; Vol. 206; ISBN 9781402097485.
A chapter in an edited book
Arnold, V.I. Conditions for non-linear stability of stationary plane curvilinear flows of an ideal fluid. In Vladimir I. Arnold - Collected Works: Hydrodynamics, Bifurcation Theory, and Algebraic Geometry 1965-1972; Givental, A.B., Khesin, B.A., Varchenko, A.N., Vassiliev, V.A., Viro, O.Y., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; pp. 19–23 ISBN 9783642310300.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soil Processes.

Blog post
Hale, T. Why Have Loads Of Corpse Flowers Been Releasing Their Stink Recently? Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Untangling the Stafford Student Loan Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1992;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adaligil, E. Electron transfer through self-assembled monolayers of alkaneselenols and alkanethiols on mercury electrode. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dynarski, S. America Can Fix Its Student Loan Crisis. Ask Australia. New York Times 2016, BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSoil Processes
ISSN (online)2411-5126

Other styles