How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Engheta N: Applied physics. Antenna-guided light. Science 2011, 334:317–318.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wiessner P, Pupu N: Toward peace: foreign arms and indigenous institutions in a Papua New Guinea society. Science 2012, 337:1651–1654.
A journal article with 3 authors
Padhi AK, Jayaram B, Gomes J: Prediction of functional loss of human angiogenin mutants associated with ALS by molecular dynamics simulations. Sci Rep 2013, 3:1225.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kwok TCY, Ricker N, Fraser R, Chan AW, Burns A, Stanley EF, McCourt P, Cutler SR, Roy PJ: A small-molecule screen in C. elegans yields a new calcium channel antagonist. Nature 2006, 441:91–95.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ibrahim D: Microcontroller Based Applied Digital Control. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Pekař M: The Thermodynamics of Linear Fluids and Fluid Mixtures. Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Meredith PJ: Attachment Theory and Pain. In Improving Patient Treatment with Attachment Theory: A Guide for Primary Care Practitioners and Specialists. Edited by Hunter J, Maunder R. Springer International Publishing; 2016:55–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J: New Type Of Mid-Sized Black Hole Found. IFLScience 2015,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Management Improvements Essential for Key Automated Systems at the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beck RE: Examining the relationship between self-initiated expatriation and cross-cultural adjustment among expatriate spouses within nonprofit organizations: A quantitative causal-comparative study. 2012,

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K: Many Yearn to Put Some Distance Between Themselves and Their Memories. New York Times 2002,

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Environmental Sustainability
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Environ. Sustain.
ISSN (print)1877-3435
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science
General Social Sciences

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