How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chambers J: Planetary science. Forming terrestrial planets. Science 2014, 344:479–480.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwartz MA, Chen CS: Cell biology. Deconstructing dimensionality. Science 2013, 339:402–404.
A journal article with 3 authors
Raviv U, Laurat P, Klein J: Fluidity of water confined to subnanometre films. Nature 2001, 413:51–54.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wei B-B, Chen S-W, Po H-C, Liu R-B: Phase transitions in the complex plane of physical parameters. Sci Rep 2014, 4:5202.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keene A: Keene on the Market. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Ashimov AA: Macroeconomic Analysis and Parametric Control of a National Economy. Springer US; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Meanwell NA, Langley DR: Inhibitors of Protein-Protein Interactions in Paramyxovirus Fusion: A Focus on Respiratory Syncytial Virus. In Protein-Protein Interactions. Edited by Wendt MD. Springer; 2012:167–196.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability.

Blog post
Luntz S: New Tool Coming In Hunt For Alien Life. IFLScience 2014,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Space Station: Resolving Conflict Over Integration Contractor’s Role. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Janpengpen A: Monitoring and forecasting biosolids odors at prior lime and post lime addition in wastewater treatment plants. 2010,

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Apuzzo M, Goldman A, Schmidt MS, Rosenberg M: Mueller Inquiry Unveils Charges and a Russia Link. New York Times 2017,

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Environmental Sustainability
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Environ. Sustain.
ISSN (print)1877-3435
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science
General Social Sciences

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