How to format your references using the Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gutchess A. Plasticity of the aging brain: new directions in cognitive neuroscience. Science 2014;346:579–82.
A journal article with 2 authors
Partridge L, Gems D. Benchmarks for ageing studies. Nature 2007;450:165–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Abel T, Bryan GL, Norman ML. The formation of the first star in the Universe. Science 2002;295:93–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yoshida K, Toyoura K, Matsunaga K, Nakahira A, Kurata H, Ikuhara YH, et al. Atomic sites and stability of Cs+ captured within zeolitic nanocavities. Sci Rep 2013;3:2457.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wootton RJ, Smith C. Reproductive Biology of Teleost Fishes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Shrikhande GV, McKinsey JF, editors. Diabetes and Peripheral Vascular Disease: Diagnosis and Management. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Lemmerich F, Atzmueller M. Describing Locations Using Tags and Images: Explorative Pattern Mining in Social Media. In: Atzmueller M, Chin A, Helic D, Hotho A, editors. Modeling and Mining Ubiquitous Social Media: International Workshops MSM 2011, Boston, MA, USA, October 9, 2011, and MUSE 2011, Athens, Greece, September 5, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 77–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E. Do Periods Really Make Women Moody? IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: HUD Needs to Improve Key Project Management Practices for Its Modernization Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pierre RR. A Phenomenological Study of the Boomerang-Employment Experience of Scientists and Engineers. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. Where Charlotte and Jane Meet. New York Times 2017:BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSoil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering
AbbreviationSoil Dyn. Earthq. Eng.
ISSN (print)0267-7261
ScopeSoil Science
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Civil and Structural Engineering

Other styles