How to format your references using the Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chudler EH. SPORE series winner. Resources for anyone interested in the brain. Science 2010;328:1648–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zucker I, Beery AK. Males still dominate animal studies. Nature 2010;465:690.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murthy VR, van Westrenen W, Fei Y. Experimental evidence that potassium is a substantial radioactive heat source in planetary cores. Nature 2003;423:163–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ogawa H, Ishiguro K-I, Gaubatz S, Livingston DM, Nakatani Y. A complex with chromatin modifiers that occupies E2F- and Myc-responsive genes in G0 cells. Science 2002;296:1132–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pinoli J-C. Mathematical Foundations of Image Processing and Analysis 1. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Whitacre DM, editor. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. vol. 225. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Lucero PI, Mikkelsen CA, Ares SE. How Are We Today? Quality of Urban Life in Argentina First Contributions from the Households Permanent Survey (2003–2012). In: Tonon G, editor. Indicators of Quality of Life in Latin America, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 81–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering.

Blog post
Fang J. First Extraterrestrial Waves Ever Spotted On Titan. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Interpretation of Continuing Education and Training Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swan C. Arts participation and career preparedness: A pragmatic approach to assessing arts benefits. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stellin S. The Border Is a Back Door for U.S. Device Searches. New York Times 2013:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSoil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering
AbbreviationSoil Dyn. Earthq. Eng.
ISSN (print)0267-7261
ScopeSoil Science
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Civil and Structural Engineering

Other styles