How to format your references using the Minds and Machines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Minds and Machines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Muggleton, S. H. (2006). 2020 computing: exceeding human limits. Nature, 440(7083), 409–410.
A journal article with 2 authors
Petersen, C. P., & Reddien, P. W. (2008). Smed-betacatenin-1 is required for anteroposterior blastema polarity in planarian regeneration. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5861), 327–330.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lineweaver, C. H., Fenner, Y., & Gibson, B. K. (2004). The galactic habitable zone and the age distribution of complex life in the Milky Way. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5654), 59–62.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Luo, W., Pulsipher, A., Dutta, D., Lamb, B. M., & Yousaf, M. N. (2014). Remote control of tissue interactions via engineered photo-switchable cell surfaces. Scientific reports, 4, 6313.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stevenson, O. (2008). Neglected Children and Their Families. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Yang, X.-S., & Koziel, S. (Eds.). (2011). Computational Optimization and Applications in Engineering and Industry (Vol. 359). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rajeshwari, D. S., Rao, P. V., & Rajesh, V. (2016). Charge Pump with Improved High-Swing Cascode Current Source for Accurate Current Matching in DPLL. In S. S. Dash, M. A. Bhaskar, B. K. Panigrahi, & S. Das (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Computations in Engineering Systems: Proceedings of ICAIECES 2015 (pp. 39–47). New Delhi: Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Minds and Machines.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, October 19). Most People Consume More Calories From Alcohol Than Sugary Drinks. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Improved Management of Computer Resources Needed To Enhance Marine Corps’ Efficiency and Effectiveness (No. LCD-76-124). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Day, J. P. (2010). Semirelativistic few body problems with matrix continued fraction methods (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2013, October 12). Anger and Indifference After a School Ends a Full-Contact Tradition. New York Times, p. D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Muggleton 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Muggleton 2006; Petersen and Reddien 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Petersen and Reddien 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Luo et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMinds and Machines
AbbreviationMinds Mach. (Dordr.)
ISSN (print)0924-6495
ISSN (online)1572-8641
Artificial Intelligence

Other styles