How to format your references using the Minds and Machines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Minds and Machines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aldhous, P. (2002). Agribiotech: more heat than light. Nature, 420(6917), 730–731.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barkman, T., & Zhang, J. (2009). Evidence for escape from adaptive conflict? Nature, 462(7274), E1; discussion E2-3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gerstner, W., Sprekeler, H., & Deco, G. (2012). Theory and simulation in neuroscience. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6103), 60–65.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, S., Li, E., Porth, I., Chen, J.-G., Mansfield, S. D., & Douglas, C. J. (2014). Regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis by poplar R2R3 MYB transcription factor PtrMYB152 in Arabidopsis. Scientific reports, 4, 5054.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Halbich, I. W. (1993). Cape Fold Belt‐Agulhas Bank Transect Across Gondwana Suture, Southern Africa (p. 46). Washington, D. C.: American Geophysical Union.
An edited book
Chesters, S. D. (Ed.). (2012). The Socratic Classroom: Reflective Thinking Through Collaborative Inquiry. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Korol, A. V., & Solov’yov, A. V. (2014). PBrS in Non-Relativistic Collisions of Structural Particles with Atoms and Ions. In A. V. Solov’yov (Ed.), Polarization Bremsstrahlung (pp. 121–150). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Minds and Machines.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 10). Brain-Eating Amoeba Strikes The U.S. Again. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Biotechnology: Information on Prices of Genetically Modified Seeds in the United States and Argentina (No. T-RCED/NSIAD-00-228). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Deutsch, D. (2010). Increased mental health services for the homeless (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L. F. (2006, November 26). New Meters Get a Mixed Review. New York Times, p. 14LI11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Aldhous 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Aldhous 2002; Barkman and Zhang 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Barkman and Zhang 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMinds and Machines
AbbreviationMinds Mach. (Dordr.)
ISSN (print)0924-6495
ISSN (online)1572-8641
Artificial Intelligence

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