How to format your references using the Minds and Machines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Minds and Machines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ritson, D. (2003). Fuel for thought. Nature, 421(6923), 575–576.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weis, S. M., & Cheresh, D. A. (2005). Pathophysiological consequences of VEGF-induced vascular permeability. Nature, 437(7058), 497–504.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gonzalez, S., Kitchener, A. C., & Lister, A. M. (2000). Survival of the Irish elk into the Holocene. Nature, 405(6788), 753–754.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, D., Zhang, Z., Zhu, Z., & Liang, B. (2014). Magnetic structure and magnetic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons with sawtooth zigzag edges. Scientific reports, 4, 7587.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morales, G., & Kacher, C. (2015). Short Selling with the O’Neil Disciples. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gullotta, T. P., Bloom, M., Gullotta, C. F., & Messina, J. C. (Eds.). (2009). A Blueprint for Promoting Academic and Social Competence in After-School Programs (Vol. 10). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Dormann, C., & van de Ven, B. (2014). Timing in Methods for Studying Psychosocial Factors at Work. In M. F. Dollard, A. Shimazu, R. Bin Nordin, P. Brough, & M. R. Tuckey (Eds.), Psychosocial Factors at Work in the Asia Pacific (pp. 89–116). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Minds and Machines.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, September 16). Human Language Gene Speeds Up Learning in Mice. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Airport Financing: Compliance With Federal Grant Requirements (No. RCED-97-179R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, B. D. (2017). Application of systems engineering principles for analysis of utility baseline development process (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2008, July 20). On the Beach, the Yoga Poses Really Flow. New York Times, p. LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ritson 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Ritson 2003; Weis and Cheresh 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weis and Cheresh 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMinds and Machines
AbbreviationMinds Mach. (Dordr.)
ISSN (print)0924-6495
ISSN (online)1572-8641
Artificial Intelligence

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