How to format your references using the Minds and Machines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Minds and Machines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Edwards, P. N. (2004). Beyond the ivory tower. “A vast machine”: standards as social technology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5672), 827–828.
A journal article with 2 authors
de Wit, J., & Seager, S. (2013). Constraining exoplanet mass from transmission spectroscopy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6165), 1473–1477.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tripati, A. K., Roberts, C. D., & Eagle, R. A. (2009). Coupling of CO2 and ice sheet stability over major climate transitions of the last 20 million years. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5958), 1394–1397.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Korneev, S. A., Kemenes, I., Bettini, N. L., Kemenes, G., Staras, K., Benjamin, P. R., & O’Shea, M. (2013). Axonal trafficking of an antisense RNA transcribed from a pseudogene is regulated by classical conditioning. Scientific reports, 3, 1027.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duchon, C., & Hale, R. (2012). Time Series Analysis in Meteorology and Climatology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Chessa, S., & Knauth, S. (Eds.). (2013). Evaluating AAL Systems Through Competitive Benchmarking: International Competitions and Final Workshop, EvAAL 2012, July and September 2012. Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 362). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pacyna, J. (2011). Environmental Emissions of Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants. In M. Quante, R. Ebinghaus, & G. Flöser (Eds.), Persistent Pollution – Past, Present and Future: School of Environmental Research - Organized by Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (pp. 49–56). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Minds and Machines.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 23). How Fish Fossils Can Help Us Build Better Submarines. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Broadcast Exclusivity Rules: Effects of Elimination Would Depend on Other Federal Actions and Industry Response (No. GAO-15-441). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheatley, B. A. (2010). Leadership styles of healthcare executives: Comparisons of transformational, transactional, and passive-avoidant styles (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz, M., & Winerip, M. (2015, June 10). Tunnels, Disguises and Sewers: A Prison’s Inmates Have Found Many Ways to Flee. New York Times, p. A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Edwards 2004).
This sentence cites two references (de Wit and Seager 2013; Edwards 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (de Wit and Seager 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Korneev et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMinds and Machines
AbbreviationMinds Mach. (Dordr.)
ISSN (print)0924-6495
ISSN (online)1572-8641
Artificial Intelligence

Other styles