How to format your references using the SOIL citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SOIL. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lewis, N. S.: Toward cost-effective solar energy use, Science, 315(5813), 798–801, 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reddy, G. V. and Meyerowitz, E. M.: Stem-cell homeostasis and growth dynamics can be uncoupled in the Arabidopsis shoot apex, Science, 310(5748), 663–667, 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mossinger, J., White, M. and Goymer, P.: Coastal regions, Nature, 504(7478), 35, 2013.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Ajelli, M., Poletti, P., Melegaro, A. and Merler, S.: The role of different social contexts in shaping influenza transmission during the 2009 pandemic, Sci. Rep., 4, 7218, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCall, M. W.: Classical Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK., 2010.
An edited book
Konstantinidis, S., Ed.: Implementation and Application of Automata: 18th International Conference, CIAA 2013, Halifax, NS, Canada, July 16-19, 2013. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
van den Belt, H.: Contesting the Obesity ‘Epidemic’: Elements of a Counter Discourse, in Genomics, Obesity and the Struggle over Responsibilities, edited by M. Korthals, pp. 39–57, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht., 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SOIL.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Solar Cell Material Moonlights as Laser, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Civil Aviation Research and Development Programs and Facilities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Detweiler, K. R.: Exploring Discursive Interaction, Habitus, and Dynamic Co-emergence Among an Agency Leader and Congressional Oversight Committee: A Case Study of Languaging in Practice, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC., 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J.: Some Live Colbert Shows Planned After Debates, New York Times, 10th August, C3, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lewis, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Lewis, 2007; Reddy and Meyerowitz, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reddy and Meyerowitz, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Ajelli et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSOIL
ISSN (print)2199-3971
ISSN (online)2199-398X

Other styles