How to format your references using the SOIL citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SOIL. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson, M.: Parkinson’s disease, Nature, 466(7310), S1, 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
Floreano, D. and Wood, R. J.: Science, technology and the future of small autonomous drones, Nature, 521(7553), 460–466, 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ginsberg, M. R., Rubin, R. A. and Natowicz, M. R.: Patterning of regional gene expression in autism: new complexity, Sci. Rep., 3, 1831, 2013.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Abe, H., Jitsuki, S., Nakajima, W., Murata, Y., Jitsuki-Takahashi, A., Katsuno, Y., Tada, H., Sano, A., Suyama, K., Mochizuki, N., Komori, T., Masuyama, H., Okuda, T., Goshima, Y., Higo, N. and Takahashi, T.: CRMP2-binding compound, edonerpic maleate, accelerates motor function recovery from brain damage, Science, 360(6384), 50–57, 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belfiore, L. A.: Transport Phenomena for Chemical Reactor Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2003.
An edited book
Parodi, G. and Sciulli, D., Eds.: Social Exclusion: Short and Long Term Causes and Consequences, Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg., 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Bradshaw, H. B.: Other Cannabimimetic Lipid Signaling Molecules, in Cannabinoids and the Brain, edited by A. Köfalvi, pp. 47–58, Springer US, Boston, MA., 2008.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SOIL.

Blog post
Andrews, R.: This Ghostly Exoplanet Is A Volcanic Hell In Deep Space, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information Resource Management Internal Control Issues, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grace, J.: A Correlational Study of the Relationship Between TEAS V and Success in Licensed Practical Nursing Students, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ., 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sifton, S.: Give ’Em the Bird, New York Times, 3rd July, MM30, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grayson, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Floreano and Wood, 2015; Grayson, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Floreano and Wood, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Abe et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleSOIL
ISSN (print)2199-3971
ISSN (online)2199-398X

Other styles