How to format your references using the SOIL citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SOIL. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ghahramani, Z.: Computational neuroscience. Building blocks of movement, Nature, 407, 682–683, 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dufour, S. C. and Felbeck, H.: Sulphide mining by the superextensile foot of symbiotic thyasirid bivalves, Nature, 426, 65–67, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Debayle, E., Kennett, B., and Priestley, K.: Global azimuthal seismic anisotropy and the unique plate-motion deformation of Australia, Nature, 433, 509–512, 2005.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Lee, B.-S., Burr, G. W., Shelby, R. M., Raoux, S., Rettner, C. T., Bogle, S. N., Darmawikarta, K., Bishop, S. G., and Abelson, J. R.: Observation of the role of subcritical nuclei in crystallization of a glassy solid, Science, 326, 980–984, 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu, H. and Li, G.: OFDM-Based Broadband Wireless Networks, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
Kilpatrick, J., Hoyles, C., Skovsmose, O., and Valero, P. (Eds.): Meaning in Mathematics Education, Springer US, Boston, MA, X, 260 p pp., 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Yao, X., Wu, L., and Zheng, W. X.: Fault Detection Filter Design for Markovian Jump Singular Systems, in: Filtering and Control of Stochastic Jump Hybrid Systems, edited by: Wu, L. and Zheng, W. X., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 45–65, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SOIL.

Blog post
Top 10 Space Science Stories From 2014:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: NASA’s Development of EOSDIS, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Young, W. B.: First-Generation Undergraduate Researchers: Engaging and Validating Cultural Wealth-Based Self-Authors, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S.: Georgia Is Warned by Russia Against Plans to Join NATO, New York Times, 7th June, A8, 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ghahramani, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Ghahramani, 2000; Dufour and Felbeck, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dufour and Felbeck, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleSOIL
ISSN (print)2199-3971
ISSN (online)2199-398X

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