How to format your references using the SOIL citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SOIL. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schimel, D. S.: Climate. Drylands in the Earth system, Science, 327, 418–419, 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williams, B. R. G. and Sen, G. C.: Immunology. A viral on/off switch for interferon, Science, 300, 1100–1101, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sigman, D. M., Hain, M. P., and Haug, G. H.: The polar ocean and glacial cycles in atmospheric CO(2) concentration, Nature, 466, 47–55, 2010.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Mills, L. S., Bragina, E. V., Kumar, A. V., Zimova, M., Lafferty, D. J. R., Feltner, J., Davis, B. M., Hackländer, K., Alves, P. C., Good, J. M., Melo-Ferreira, J., Dietz, A., Abramov, A. V., Lopatina, N., and Fay, K.: Winter color polymorphisms identify global hot spots for evolutionary rescue from climate change, Science, 359, 1033–1036, 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Potter, L.: The Life of William Shakespeare, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2012.
An edited book
Sirenko, Y. K. and Ström, S. (Eds.): Modern Theory of Gratings: Resonant Scattering: Analysis Techniques and Phenomena, Springer, New York, NY, XVI, 390 p. 120 illus., 43 illus. in color pp., 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Caciandone, S. and Chiru, C.-G.: Using Machine Learning to Generate Predictions Based on the Information Extracted from Automobile Ads, in: Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, and Applications: 17th International Conference, AIMSA 2016, Varna, Bulgaria, September 7-10, 2016, Proceedings, edited by: Dichev, C. and Agre, G., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 36–45, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SOIL.

Blog post
What Would It Look Like If The Moon Were A Disco Ball?, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Internet of Things: Communities Deploy Projects by Combining Federal Support with Other Funds and Expertise, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Houger, V. P.: Generational differences and the impact to employee engagement: A program design, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L.: Economy and All, Budgets Sail Through, New York Times, 25th May, LI2, 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schimel, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Schimel, 2010; Williams and Sen, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Williams and Sen, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Mills et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleSOIL
ISSN (print)2199-3971
ISSN (online)2199-398X

Other styles