How to format your references using the SOIL citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SOIL. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hauser, M.: Our chimpanzee mind, Nature, 437, 60–63, 2005.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bouziat, R. and Jabri, B.: IMMUNOLOGY. Breaching the gut-vascular barrier, Science, 350, 742–743, 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Munsky, B., Neuert, G., and van Oudenaarden, A.: Using gene expression noise to understand gene regulation, Science, 336, 183–187, 2012.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Foster, K. L., Plastridge, R. A., Bottenheim, J. W., Shepson, P. B., Finlayson-Pitts, B. J., and Spicer, C. W.: The role of Br2 and BrCl in surface ozone destruction at polar sunrise, Science, 291, 471–474, 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cochetti, R.: Mobile Satellite Communications Handbook, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
Tatnall, A., Okamoto, T., and Visscher, A. (Eds.): Knowledge Management for Educational Innovation: IFIP WG 3.7 7th Conference on Information Technology in Educational Management (ITEM), Hamamatsu, Japan, July 23–26, 2006, Springer US, Boston, MA, X, 210 p. 36 illus pp., 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Knoepffler, N. and O’Malley, M.: Ethical Aspects, in: Kanerva’s Occupational Dermatology, edited by: Rustemeyer, T., Elsner, P., John, S.-M., and Maibach, H. I., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 27–35, 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SOIL.

Blog post
America’s Cicadas Are Mysteriously Appearing Four Years Early:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Drug Testing: Undercover Tests Reveal Significant Vulnerabilities in DOT’s Drug Testing Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, H.: Prediction and Elimination of Galling in Forming Galvanized Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS), Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis, A.: NYU Langone Restarts Emergency Room Damaged by Hurricane Sandy, New York Times, 25th April, A20, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hauser, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Hauser, 2005; Bouziat and Jabri, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bouziat and Jabri, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Foster et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleSOIL
ISSN (print)2199-3971
ISSN (online)2199-398X

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