How to format your references using the SOIL citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SOIL. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P.: Job movements, Nature, 433, 901, 2005.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hall, A. and Stouffer, R. J.: An abrupt climate event in a coupled ocean-atmosphere simulation without external forcing, Nature, 409, 171–174, 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cerritelli, S. M., Chon, H., and Crouch, R. J.: Molecular biology. A new twist for topoisomerase, Science, 332, 1510–1511, 2011.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Weng, L.-C., Pasaribu, B., Lin, I.-P., Tsai, C.-H., Chen, C.-S., and Jiang, P.-L.: Nitrogen deprivation induces lipid droplet accumulation and alters fatty acid metabolism in symbiotic dinoflagellates isolated from Aiptasia pulchella, Sci. Rep., 4, 5777, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lombard, M.: SolidWorks® Administration Bible, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2009.
An edited book
Roy, M. and Sinha Roy, S. (Eds.): International Trade and International Finance: Explorations of Contemporary Issues, Springer India, New Delhi, XVI, 595 p. 79 illus., 59 illus. in color pp., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Melles, G. R. J.: Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty, in: Cornea and External Eye Disease, edited by: Reinhard, T. and Larkin, D. F. P., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 65–71, 2006.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SOIL.

Blog post
“Intellectual Humility” Is Surprisingly Bipartisan:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Human Resources Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Magda, B.: Increasing efficacy of emergency departments through systems analysis of enterprise architecture: Mitigating the impact of technological change, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L.: Drama Students Face A Change of Scene, New York Times, 12th February, 14LI7, 2006.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2005; Hall and Stouffer, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hall and Stouffer, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Weng et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSOIL
ISSN (print)2199-3971
ISSN (online)2199-398X

Other styles