How to format your references using the Nature Reviews Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nature Reviews Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Degen, M. Science has flourished in eastern Germany since reunification, bringing researchers from far and near. But the tide of investment may be turning. Nature 423, 204–205 (2003).
A journal article with 2 authors
Stark, J. & Hardy, K. Mathematics. Chaos: useful at last? Science 301, 1192–1193 (2003).
A journal article with 3 authors
Venkatesan, M., Fitzgerald, C. B. & Coey, J. M. D. Thin films: unexpected magnetism in a dielectric oxide. Nature 430, 630 (2004).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Bayne, E. H. et al. Splicing factors facilitate RNAi-directed silencing in fission yeast. Science 322, 602–606 (2008).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Silvia, J. E. Dynamic Economic Decision Making. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011).
An edited book
Mathematical Methods and Models in Biomedicine. (Springer, 2013).
A chapter in an edited book
Shimizu, N., Tatematsu, M. & Kaminishi, M. Helicobacter pylori and Gastric Carcinoma. in The Diversity of Gastric Carcinoma: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Therapy (eds. Kaminishi, M., Takubo, K. & Mafune, K.-I.) 75–86 (Springer, 2005).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nature Reviews Immunology.

Blog post
Hale, T. Sailors Find Millions Of Dollars Worth Of ‘Sperm Whale Puke’. IFLScience (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Motor Carrier Safety: Preliminary Information on Challenges to Ensuring the Integrity of Drug Testing Programs. (2007).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Paredes, J. Critical Support for Central American Newcomer Youth and Schooling in One Southern California High School. (California State University, Long Beach, 2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. NBC Rolls Back Promised ‘Must See TV’ Revival. New York Times B4 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNature Reviews Immunology
AbbreviationNat. Rev. Immunol.
ISSN (print)1474-1733
ISSN (online)1474-1741

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