How to format your references using the Soft Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soft Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Narbonne GM (2004) Modular construction of early Ediacaran complex life forms. Science 305:1141–1144
A journal article with 2 authors
Reichhardt CJO, Lopatina LM (2009) Materials science. A ball-and-chain polymer model. Science 326:374–375
A journal article with 3 authors
Khanna KM, McNamara JT, Lefrançois L (2007) In situ imaging of the endogenous CD8 T cell response to infection. Science 318:116–120
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Liu T, DeCostanzo AJ, Liu X, et al (2001) G protein signaling from activated rat frizzled-1 to the beta-catenin-Lef-Tcf pathway. Science 292:1718–1722

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaszeta D (2012) CBRN and Hazmat Incidents at Major Public Events. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Rassia ST, Pardalos PM (eds) (2012) Sustainable Environmental Design in Architecture: Impacts on Health. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Hlaváčková-Schindler K, Pereverzyev S (2015) Lasso Granger Causal Models: Some Strategies and Their Efficiency for Gene Expression Regulatory Networks. In: Guy TV, Kárný M, Wolpert DH (eds) Decision Making: Uncertainty, Imperfection, Deliberation and Scalability. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 91–117

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soft Computing.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Lunar Dynamo May Have Generated The Moon’s Ancient Magnetic Field. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Federal Family Education Loan Program: Eliminating the Exceptional Performer Designation Would Result in Substantial Savings without Adversely Affecting the Loan Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen M (2010) Therapeutic groups for adults with mental illness and their caregivers: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2011) Smile When You Say It: Same Old Jets. New York Times B25

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Narbonne 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Narbonne 2004; Reichhardt and Lopatina 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reichhardt and Lopatina 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleSoft Computing
AbbreviationSoft Comput.
ISSN (print)1432-7643
ISSN (online)1433-7479
Geometry and Topology
Theoretical Computer Science

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