How to format your references using the Soft Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soft Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kleiner K (2006) Assault on batteries. Nature 441:1046–1047
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson VJ, Lekkerkerker HNW (2002) Insights into phase transition kinetics from colloid science. Nature 416:811–815
A journal article with 3 authors
Arora PK, Srivastava A, Singh VP (2014) Degradation of 4-chloro-3-nitrophenol via a novel intermediate, 4-chlororesorcinol by Pseudomonas sp. JHN. Sci Rep 4:4475
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Arístegui J, Duarte CM, Agustí S, et al (2002) Dissolved organic carbon support of respiration in the dark ocean. Science 298:1967

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Müller G, Ponick B (2005) Grundlagen elektrischer Maschinen. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG
An edited book
Staudter C (2009) Design for Six Sigma+Lean Toolset: Implementing Innovations Successfully. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Proudler G, Chen L, Dalton C (2014) TPM2 Requirements. In: Chen L, Dalton C (eds) Trusted Computing Platforms: TPM2.0 in Context. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 131–150

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soft Computing.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) Lonely Young Star Found In The “Middle Of Nowhere.” In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Space Acquisitions: Committing Prematurely to the Transformational Satellite Program Elevates Risks for Poor Cost, Schedule, and Performance Outcomes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koblick DC (2012) Parallel high-precision orbit propagation using the modified Picard-Chebyshev method. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M (2017) A Case That Reverberates In Inkblot-Like Districts. New York Times A15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kleiner 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Anderson and Lekkerkerker 2002; Kleiner 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Anderson and Lekkerkerker 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Arístegui et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleSoft Computing
AbbreviationSoft Comput.
ISSN (print)1432-7643
ISSN (online)1433-7479
Geometry and Topology
Theoretical Computer Science

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