How to format your references using the Soft Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soft Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elderfield H (2010) Climate. Seawater chemistry and climate. Science 327:1092–1093
A journal article with 2 authors
Moellering RE, Cravatt BF (2013) Functional lysine modification by an intrinsically reactive primary glycolytic metabolite. Science 341:549–553
A journal article with 3 authors
Wei B, Dai M, Yin P (2012) Complex shapes self-assembled from single-stranded DNA tiles. Nature 485:623–626
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Dai P, Harada Y, Miyachi H, et al (2014) Combining TGF-β signal inhibition and connexin43 silencing for iPSC induction from mouse cardiomyocytes. Sci Rep 4:7323

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Armstrong HA, Brasier MD (2004) Microfossils. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA USA
An edited book
Brueckner SA, Marzo Serugendo GD, Karageorgos A, Nagpal R (eds) (2005) Engineering Self-Organising Systems: Methodologies and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Alam T, Lee PS, Jin L-W (2014) Optimization of Microgap Channel Dimension and Operating Condition. In: Lee PS, Jin L (eds) Flow Boiling in Microgap Channels: Experiment, Visualization and Analysis. Springer, New York, NY, pp 29–40

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soft Computing.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) Neutron Stars Can Produce Jets That Are Just As Powerful As Black Holes’. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Strategic Bombers: Adding Conventional Capabilities Will Be Complex, Time-Consuming, and Costly. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chamberlain AD (2014) Policy and Behavior: Essays in Applied Microeconomics. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bennhold K (2017) In Merkel, a Lofty Symbol for German Women, but an Anomaly. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Elderfield 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Elderfield 2010; Moellering and Cravatt 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moellering and Cravatt 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Dai et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSoft Computing
AbbreviationSoft Comput.
ISSN (print)1432-7643
ISSN (online)1433-7479
Geometry and Topology
Theoretical Computer Science

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