How to format your references using the Virchows Archiv citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virchows Archiv. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon D (2004) Probing real-time protein interactions. Nature 432:249
A journal article with 2 authors
Schofield RMS, Nesson MH (2003) Comment on “High abrasion resistance with sparse mineralization: copper biomineral in worm jaws.” Science 301:1049; author reply 1049
A journal article with 3 authors
Alboussière T, Deguen R, Melzani M (2010) Melting-induced stratification above the Earth’s inner core due to convective translation. Nature 466:744–747
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Paparo GD, Müller M, Comellas F, Martin-Delgado MA (2013) Quantum Google in a complex network. Sci Rep 3:2773

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Myers FR (2009) Get the Job You Want, Even When No One’s Hiring. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Hu B, Liu J, Chen L, Zhong N (2011) Brain Informatics: International Conference, BI 2011, Lanzhou, China, September 7-9, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Vail A (2016) Protestant Nonconformists: Providers of Educational and Social Services. In: Ackers P, Reid AJ (eds) Alternatives to State-Socialism in Britain: Other Worlds of Labour in the Twentieth Century. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 121–150

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virchows Archiv.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) 12 Ways To Deal With A Climate Change Denier – The BBQ Guide. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983) GAO ADP Data Lines: Issue No. 1. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bustillo MF (2010) Heart and Art: Post-adoption program: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2002) When the City Says Show Me, It Means It. New York Times 146

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVirchows Archiv
AbbreviationVirchows Arch.
ISSN (print)0945-6317
ISSN (online)1432-2307
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
General Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles