How to format your references using the Virchows Archiv citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virchows Archiv. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Appelbaum FR (2001) Haematopoietic cell transplantation as immunotherapy. Nature 411:385–389
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Makse HA, Kurchan J (2002) Testing the thermodynamic approach to granular matter with a numerical model of a decisive experiment. Nature 415:614–617
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Ehrsson HH, Spence C, Passingham RE (2004) That’s my hand! Activity in premotor cortex reflects feeling of ownership of a limb. Science 305:875–877
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Tochio H, Tsui MM, Banfield DK, Zhang M (2001) An autoinhibitory mechanism for nonsyntaxin SNARE proteins revealed by the structure of Ykt6p. Science 293:698–702

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Sehgal V (2011) Supply Chain as Strategic Asset. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Zelinka I, Snášel V, Abraham A (2013) Handbook of Optimization: From Classical to Modern Approach. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Mossakowski T, Pawłowski W, Sannella D, Tarlecki A (2014) Parchments for CafeOBJ Logics. In: Iida S, Meseguer J, Ogata K (eds) Specification, Algebra, and Software: Essays Dedicated to Kokichi Futatsugi. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 66–91

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virchows Archiv.

Blog post
1.
Fang J (2015) New Peruvian Frog Has White Splotches On Its Belly. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/new-peruvian-frog-has-white-splotches-its-belly/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1999) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems, and Child Restraint Anchorage Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Wosu UL (2017) Geochemical Analysis of Late Pleistocene Sediments from Fossil Lake, Northern Lake County, Oregon. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Feeney K (2011) Irish Soda Bread, Family Style. New York Times NJ10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVirchows Archiv
AbbreviationVirchows Arch.
ISSN (print)0945-6317
ISSN (online)1432-2307
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
General Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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