How to format your references using the Virchows Archiv citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virchows Archiv. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Krause DW (2001) Fossil molar from a Madagascan marsupial. Nature 412:497–498
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Valbuzzi A, Yanofsky C (2001) Inhibition of the B. subtilis regulatory protein TRAP by the TRAP-inhibitory protein, AT. Science 293:2057–2059
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Wiedenheft B, Sternberg SH, Doudna JA (2012) RNA-guided genetic silencing systems in bacteria and archaea. Nature 482:331–338
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Holmes KC, Angert I, Kull FJ, et al (2003) Electron cryo-microscopy shows how strong binding of myosin to actin releases nucleotide. Nature 425:423–427

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Jayaweera SK (2014) Signal Processing for Cognitive Radios. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Bonaventura L (2012) Earth System Modelling - Volume 2: Algorithms, Code Infrastructure and Optimisation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Gravemeijer K, Figueiredo N, van Galen F, et al (2016) The domain of geometry. In: Figueiredo N, Galen F van, Keijzer R, Munk F (eds) Measurement and Geometry in Upper Primary School. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp 67–105

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virchows Archiv.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E (2015) Job survival in the age of robots and intelligent machines. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/job-survival-age-robots-and-intelligent-machines/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1968) Research and Development--and the Congress. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Lee Y (2017) Lexical Stress Features Affecting the Recognition of English Loanwords in Korean by Native English Hearers. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Koblin J (2017) Political Bite Gives Colbert Ratings Edge Over Fallon. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVirchows Archiv
AbbreviationVirchows Arch.
ISSN (print)0945-6317
ISSN (online)1432-2307
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
General Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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