How to format your references using the Virchows Archiv citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virchows Archiv. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
McMillan P (2000) Phase transitions: jumping between liquid states. Nature 403:151–152
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Khosla C, Harbury PB (2001) Modular enzymes. Nature 409:247–252
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Unal E, Heidinger-Pauli JM, Koshland D (2007) DNA double-strand breaks trigger genome-wide sister-chromatid cohesion through Eco1 (Ctf7). Science 317:245–248
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Stadler RH, Blank I, Varga N, et al (2002) Acrylamide from Maillard reaction products. Nature 419:449–450

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Lißner K, Rug W (2016) Der Eurocode 5 für Deutschland Eurocode 5: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Holzbauten. Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany
An edited book
1.
Wallace WA, Wroble RR, Maffulli N, Kordi R (2009) Combat Sports Medicine. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Kuhlthau K (2012) Parent Caregivers of Children with Disabilities. In: Talley RC, Crews JE (eds) Multiple Dimensions of Caregiving and Disability: Research, Practice, Policy. Springer, New York, NY, pp 67–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virchows Archiv.

Blog post
1.
Fang J (2014) Bizarre 505-Million-Year-Old Spiky Worm Has Living Descendants. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/bizarre-505-million-year-old-spiky-worm-has-living-descendants/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1980) An Analysis of Concerns in Federal Education Programs: Duplication of Services and Administrative Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Bartenhagen J (2012) Transitioning organizations for sustainability: Exploring the intersection of sustainability, worldview, and organization development. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Brantley B (2016) Haunting Lamentation for an Evanescent Now. New York Times C4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVirchows Archiv
AbbreviationVirchows Arch.
ISSN (print)0945-6317
ISSN (online)1432-2307
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
General Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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