How to format your references using the Entropy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Entropy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Godfray, H.C.J., Jr Linnaeus in the Information Age. Nature 2007, 446, 259–260.
A journal article with 2 authors
McNeill, J.R.; Winiwarter, V. Breaking the Sod: Humankind, History, and Soil. Science 2004, 304, 1627–1629.
A journal article with 3 authors
Willis, K.J.; Gillson, L.; Brncic, T.M. Ecology. How “virgin” Is Virgin Rainforest? Science 2004, 304, 402–403.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ferguson, N.M.; Keeling, M.J.; Edmunds, W.J.; Gani, R.; Grenfell, B.T.; Anderson, R.M.; Leach, S. Planning for Smallpox Outbreaks. Nature 2003, 425, 681–685.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jarman, K.H. Beyond Basic Statistics; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781118856178.
An edited book
McGrath, M.J. Sensor Technologies: Healthcare, Wellness, and Environmental Applications; Scanaill, C.N., Ed.; Apress: Berkeley, CA, 2013; ISBN 9781430260134.
A chapter in an edited book
Shapiro, S. Foundations: Structures, Sets, and Categories. In Foundational Theories of Classical and Constructive Mathematics; Sommaruga, G., Ed.; The Western Ontario Series in Philosophy of Science; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2011; pp. 97–110 ISBN 9789400704305.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Entropy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. The Greatest Taboo? The Surprising Truth Of What The Bible Says About Incest Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Rail Transit: Reliability of FTA’s Rail Accident Database; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2011;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen, R.T. Exploring the Lived Experiences of Program Managers Regarding an Automated Logistics Environment. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University: Scottsdale, AZ, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Candaele, K. Postcards From the Edge: The Houston Nomads. New York Times 1992, 81.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEntropy
AbbreviationEntropy (Basel)
ISSN (online)1099-4300
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

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