How to format your references using the Entropy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Entropy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, A. Cell biology: Potency unchained. Nature 2014, 505, 622–623.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matsumoto, Y.; Maller, J.L. Calcium, calmodulin, and CaMKII requirement for initiation of centrosome duplication in Xenopus egg extracts. Science 2002, 295, 499–502.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiang, G.Y.; Hofmann, H.F.; Pryde, G.J. Optimal multi-photon phase sensing with a single interference fringe. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2684.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Barnett, R.N.; Cleveland, C.L.; Joy, A.; Landman, U.; Schuster, G.B. Charge migration in DNA: ion-gated transport. Science 2001, 294, 567–571.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chaskalson, M. The Mindful Workplace; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781119976974.
An edited book
The Basque Language in the Digital Age; Rehm, G., Uszkoreit, H., Eds.; White Paper Series; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; ISBN 9783642307959.
A chapter in an edited book
McTear, M.; Callejas, Z.; Griol, D. Conversational Interfaces: Past and Present. In The Conversational Interface: Talking to Smart Devices; Callejas, Z., Griol, D., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 51–72 ISBN 9783319329659.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Entropy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. ‘White Whale’: Wild Orca Is One Of Only Four Of Its Kind Ever Seen Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office FAA Budget: Important Challenges Affecting Aviation Safety, Capacity, and Efficiency; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schaff, S. What characterizes and impacts student transformational learning in a community college work placement context. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. Art Rooted in Matters of the Heart and the Mind. New York Times 2015, CT8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEntropy
AbbreviationEntropy (Basel)
ISSN (online)1099-4300
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

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