How to format your references using the Entropy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Entropy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kröger, N. Biochemistry. The Molecular Basis of Nacre Formation. Science 2009, 325, 1351–1352.
A journal article with 2 authors
Strausfeld, N.J.; Hirth, F. Deep Homology of Arthropod Central Complex and Vertebrate Basal Ganglia. Science 2013, 340, 157–161.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fiorillo, C.D.; Tobler, P.N.; Schultz, W. Discrete Coding of Reward Probability and Uncertainty by Dopamine Neurons. Science 2003, 299, 1898–1902.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Guduru, R.; Liang, P.; Runowicz, C.; Nair, M.; Atluri, V.; Khizroev, S. Magneto-Electric Nanoparticles to Enable Field-Controlled High-Specificity Drug Delivery to Eradicate Ovarian Cancer Cells. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2953.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson Jr. MD, W.H.; Moller MD, J.H. Pediatric Cardiology; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118503379.
An edited book
Gastrointestinal Oncology: A Practical Guide; Blanke, C.D., Rödel, C., Talamonti, M.S., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; ISBN 9783642133053.
A chapter in an edited book
Thyagarajan, B. Antidotes to Botulinum Neurotoxin Botulinum Neurotoxin Antidotes. In Biological Toxins and Bioterrorism; Gopalakrishnakone, P., Balali-Mood, M., Llewellyn, L., Singh, B.R., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2015; pp. 375–400 ISBN 9789400758681.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Entropy.

Blog post
Andrew, D. We’ve Found A New Family Of Stars In The Milky Way That Could Help Us Work Out How Galaxies Formed Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Amtrak: Financial Condition Has Deteriorated and Future Costs Make Recovery Difficult; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Page, J.A. Contested Urban Space: Competing Discourses of Urban Development and Environmental Conservation in Playa Vista, California. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. To Soccer Fan, Train Whistle Hits Perfect Pitch. New York Times 2010, SP8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEntropy
AbbreviationEntropy (Basel)
ISSN (online)1099-4300
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

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