How to format your references using the Sociology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sociology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boughman J (2007) Great expectations. Nature 447(7145): 752.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aragão LEOC and Shimabukuro YE (2010) The incidence of fire in Amazonian forests with implications for REDD. Science (New York, N.Y.) 328(5983): 1275–1278.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vinther J, Van Roy P and Briggs DEG (2008) Machaeridians are Palaeozoic armoured annelids. Nature 451(7175): 185–188.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Park S, Wolanin PM, Yuzbashyan EA, et al. (2003) Motion to form a quorum. Science (New York, N.Y.) 301(5630): 188.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quinquis A (2008) Digital Signal Processing Using MATLAB®. London, UK: ISTE.
An edited book
Grant E, Kotzinos D, Laurent D, et al. (eds) (2016) Information Search, Integration, and Personalization: 10th International Workshop, ISIP 2015, Grand Forks, ND, USA, October 1-2, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Li X and Gao S (2012) Effects of Sea Surface Temperature. In: Gao S (ed.) Precipitation Modeling and Quantitative Analysis. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 111–124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sociology.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) What Have Cats Ever Done For Us? IFLScience. Available at: (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) NASA Procurement: Improving the Management of Delegated Contract Functions. NSIAD-92-75, 27 March. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez F (2010) Grant proposal: Providing effective screening, training, and supervision for an at-risk youth mentoring program. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2013) A.I.G. Seeks Approval To File More Bank Suits. New York Times, 16 January.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boughman, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Aragão and Shimabukuro, 2010; Boughman, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aragão and Shimabukuro, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Park et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleSociology
ISSN (print)0038-0385
ISSN (online)1469-8684
ScopeSociology and Political Science

Other styles