How to format your references using the Sociology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sociology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage N (2015) Mobile data: Made to measure. Nature 527(7576): S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sourjik V and Berg HC (2004) Functional interactions between receptors in bacterial chemotaxis. Nature 428(6981): 437–441.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khudiyev T, Dogan T and Bayindir M (2014) Biomimicry of multifunctional nanostructures in the neck feathers of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos L.) drakes. Scientific reports 4: 4718.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Münte TF, Kohlmetz C, Nager W, et al. (2001) Neuroperception. Superior auditory spatial tuning in conductors. Nature 409(6820): 580.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wells AR and Chiang K (2017) Monetizing Your Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bajo J, Hallenborg K, Pawlewski P, et al. (eds) (2015) Highlights of Practical Applications of Agents, Multi-Agent Systems, and Sustainability - The PAAMS Collection: International Workshops of PAAMS 2015, Salamanca, Spain, June 3-4, 2015. Proceedings. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Rana S and Zöller M (2013) The Functional Importance of Tetraspanins in Exosomes. In: Zhang H-G (ed.) Emerging Concepts of Tumor Exosome–Mediated Cell-Cell Communication. New York, NY: Springer, pp. 69–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sociology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) 300-Year-Old Eclipse Wind Mystery Finally Explained. IFLScience. Available at: (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983) Better Use of Information Technology Can Reduce the Burden of Federal Paperwork. GGD-83-39, 11 April. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shirley A (2012) Connecting foster children with their siblings within a summer camp setting: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L (2006) The Power of the Adolescent Pen. New York Times, 26 March.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savage, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Savage, 2015; Sourjik and Berg, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sourjik and Berg, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Münte et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleSociology
ISSN (print)0038-0385
ISSN (online)1469-8684
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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