How to format your references using the Sociology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sociology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruiz J (2001) The stability against freezing of an internal liquid-water ocean in Callisto. Nature 412(6845): 409–411.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heyward AJ and Negri AP (2012) Turbulence, cleavage, and the naked embryo: a case for coral clones. Science (New York, N.Y.) 335(6072): 1064.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xie W, Wang H and Wu J (2014) Similar morphological and molecular signatures shared by female and male germline stem cells. Scientific reports 4: 5580.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Krause O, Birkmann SM, Rieke GH, et al. (2004) No cold dust within the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. Nature 432(7017): 596–598.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Misra S and Goswami S (2017) Network Routing. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Brandacher G (ed.) (2015) The Science of Reconstructive Transplantation. Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sonnemann TF, Malatesta EH and Hofman CL (2016) Applying UAS Photogrammetry to Analyze Spatial Patterns of Indigenous Settlement Sites in the Northern Dominican Republic. In: Forte M and Campana S (eds) Digital Methods and Remote Sensing in Archaeology: Archaeology in the Age of Sensing. Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 71–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sociology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) Aliens Will Probably Be Machines, Not Little Green Men, Says SETI Expert. IFLScience. Available at: (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Tax Systems Modernization: Comments on IRS’ Portion of President’s Request for Fiscal Year 1993 Supplemental Funds. T-IMTEC-93-1, 24 February. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ciolek R (2017) A Mixed Method Study on the Missouri Beginning Teachers Assistance Program and Teacher Retention in Saint Louis School Districts. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2004) World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Soldiers’ Convictions Reinstated. New York Times, 27 August.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ruiz, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Heyward and Negri, 2012; Ruiz, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heyward and Negri, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Krause et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleSociology
ISSN (print)0038-0385
ISSN (online)1469-8684
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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