How to format your references using the Sociological Methodology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sociological Methodology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schlamminger, Stephan. 2014. “Fundamental Constants: A Cool Way to Measure Big G.” Nature 510(7506):478–80.
A journal article with 2 authors
Velian, Alexandra and Christopher C. Cummins. 2015. “Inorganic Chemistry. Synthesis and Characterization of P₂N₃: An Aromatic Ion Composed of Phosphorus and Nitrogen.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348(6238):1001–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cacace, F., G. de Petris, and A. Troiani. 2002. “Experimental Detection of Tetranitrogen.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295(5554):480–81.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Walsh, Matthew R., Carolyn A. Koh, E. Dendy Sloan, Amadeu K. Sum, and David T. Wu. 2009. “Microsecond Simulations of Spontaneous Methane Hydrate Nucleation and Growth.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 326(5956):1095–98.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gaffikin, Frank and Mike Morrissey. 2011. Planning in Divided Cities: Collaborative Shaping of Contested Space. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Mikulski, Jerzy, ed. 2012. Telematics in the Transport Environment: 12th International Conference on Transport Systems Telematics, TST 2012, Katowice-Ustroń, Poland, October 10–13, 2012. Selected Papers. Vol. 329. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Schwamborn, Dieter and Mikhail Strelets. 2012. “ATAAC – An EU-Project Dedicated to Hybrid RANS/LES Methods.” Pp. 59–75 in Progress in Hybrid RANS-LES Modelling: Papers Contributed to the 4th Symposium on Hybrid RANS-LES Methods, Beijing, China, September 2011, Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design, edited by S. Fu, W. Haase, S.-H. Peng, and D. Schwamborn. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sociological Methodology.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2015. “Awesome Time-Lapse Of Hyenas Devouring A Buffalo Carcass.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Aviation and the Environment: NextGen and Research and Development Are Keys to Reducing Emissions and Their Impact on Health and Climate. GAO-08-706T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chung, Yu-Kuang. 2010. “A Comparison of Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms in Data Clustering.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2012. “Poised and Graceful Performers, but a Step Behind the Spotlight.” New York Times, February 15, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schlamminger 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Schlamminger 2014; Velian and Cummins 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Velian and Cummins 2015)
  • Three authors: (Cacace, de Petris, and Troiani 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Walsh et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleSociological Methodology
AbbreviationSociol. Methodol.
ISSN (print)0081-1750
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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