How to format your references using the Sociological Methodology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sociological Methodology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hartmann, Dennis L. 2002. “Climate Change. Tropical Surprises.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295(5556):811–12.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rappuoli, Rino, and Antonello Covacci. 2003. “Reverse Vaccinology and Genomics.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302(5645):602.
A journal article with 3 authors
McHenry, Colin R., Alex G. Cook, and Stephen Wroe. 2005. “Bottom-Feeding Plesiosaurs.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 310(5745):75.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kampe, K. K., C. D. Frith, R. J. Dolan, and U. Frith. 2001. “Reward Value of Attractiveness and Gaze.” Nature 413(6856):589.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Madden, Bartley J. 2010. Wealth Creation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ciccarelli, Francesca D., and István Miklós, eds. 2009. Comparative Genomics: International Workshop, RECOMB-CG 2009, Budapest, Hungary, September 27-29, 2009. Proceedings. Vol. 5817. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cho, Eun Jeong, Manjula Rajendran, and Andrew D. Ellington. 2005. “Aptamers as Emerging Probes for Macromolecular Sensing.” Pp. 127–55 in Advanced Concepts in Fluorescence Sensing: Part B: Macromolecular Sensing, edited by C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sociological Methodology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2016. “Study Confirms That Comets Are Remnants Of The Early Solar System.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Air Traffic Control: FAA Needs a More Comprehensive Approach to Address Cybersecurity As Agency Transitions to NextGen. GAO-15-370. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stone, Melissa Anne. 2008. “A Quantitative Study of Perceptions of Female Air Force Leaders.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, George. 2014. “The Intelligent-Life Lottery.” New York Times, August 19, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hartmann 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Hartmann 2002; Rappuoli and Covacci 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rappuoli and Covacci 2003)
  • Three authors: (McHenry, Cook, and Wroe 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kampe et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleSociological Methodology
AbbreviationSociol. Methodol.
ISSN (print)0081-1750
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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