How to format your references using the Sociological Methodology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sociological Methodology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pockley, P. 2000. “Clean-up Strategy at Australian Nuclear Site Called into Question.” Nature 404(6780):797.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gruber, Nicolas and James N. Galloway. 2008. “An Earth-System Perspective of the Global Nitrogen Cycle.” Nature 451(7176):293–96.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rosu, Simona, Diana E. Libuda, and Anne M. Villeneuve. 2011. “Robust Crossover Assurance and Regulated Interhomolog Access Maintain Meiotic Crossover Number.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334(6060):1286–89.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, Z. Y., N. P. Young, M. Di Vece, S. Palomba, R. E. Palmer, A. L. Bleloch, B. C. Curley, R. L. Johnston, J. Jiang, and J. Yuan. 2008. “Three-Dimensional Atomic-Scale Structure of Size-Selected Gold Nanoclusters.” Nature 451(7174):46–48.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Waine, Colin. 2008. Obesity and Weight Management in Primary Care. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd.
An edited book
Kassim, Tarek A., ed. 2005. Water Pollution: Environmental Impact Assessment of Recycled Wastes on Surface and Ground Waters; Risk Analysis. Vol. 2. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hart, William E., Carl Laird, Jean-Paul Watson, and David L. Woodruff. 2012. “Model Components: Sets and Parameters.” Pp. 43–55 in Pyomo – Optimization Modeling in Python, Springer Optimization and Its Applications, edited by C. Laird, J.-P. Watson, and D. L. Woodruff. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sociological Methodology.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “New Collection Of Artwork Commissioned By Gates Foundation Reminds Us Of The Importance Of Vaccination.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. Air Traffic Control: FAA Should Avoid Duplication in Procuring a Traffic Management System. IMTEC-88-8. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robinson, Laura M. 2001. “Using Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectroscopy to Examine Exciton Dynamics in II-VI Semiconductor Nanostructures.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bernstein, Jacob, Bee-Shyuan Chang, Mary Billard, Alex Williams, Ruth La Ferla, Laura M. Holson, and John Harney. 2012. “When The Power Came Back, So Did the Crowds.” New York Times, November 8, E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pockley 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gruber and Galloway 2008; Pockley 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gruber and Galloway 2008)
  • Three authors: (Rosu, Libuda, and Villeneuve 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Li et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleSociological Methodology
AbbreviationSociol. Methodol.
ISSN (print)0081-1750
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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