How to format your references using the Sociological Methodology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sociological Methodology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Delaney, P. 2000. “Palaeoceanography. Nutrients in the Glacial Balance.” Nature 405(6784):288–89, 291.
A journal article with 2 authors
Belden, W. J., and C. Barlowe. 2001. “Role of Erv29p in Collecting Soluble Secretory Proteins into ER-Derived Transport Vesicles.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294(5546):1528–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cohen, I. Glenn, Julian Savulescu, and Eli Y. Adashi. 2015. “Medicine. Transatlantic Lessons in Regulation of Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348(6231):178–80.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fong, Loren G., David Frost, Margarita Meta, Xin Qiao, Shao H. Yang, Catherine Coffinier, and Stephen G. Young. 2006. “A Protein Farnesyltransferase Inhibitor Ameliorates Disease in a Mouse Model of Progeria.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311(5767):1621–23.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stokes, Debbie J. 2008. Principles and Practice of Variable Pressure/Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (VP-ESEM). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Itenberg, Ilia, Burglind Jöricke, and Mikael Passare, eds. 2012. Perspectives in Analysis, Geometry, and Topology: On the Occasion of the 60th Birthday of Oleg Viro. Vol. 296. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Enqvist, Sebastian. 2011. “A Structuralist Framework for the Logic of Theory Change.” Pp. 105–35 in Belief Revision meets Philosophy of Science, edited by E. J. Olsson and S. Enqvist. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sociological Methodology.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Populations of a Superabundant Bird Collapsed in Just 25 Years.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. NASA: Human Space Exploration Programs Face Challenges. GAO-15-248T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gindin, Mariel. 2012. “Identification and Characterization of Putative Secreted Proteins from the Adult-Stage Hookworm, Ancylostoma Caninum.” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2006. “Supreme Court Hears Case Involving Lethal Injection.” New York Times, April 27, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Delaney 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Belden and Barlowe 2001; Delaney 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Belden and Barlowe 2001)
  • Three authors: (Cohen, Savulescu, and Adashi 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Fong et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleSociological Methodology
AbbreviationSociol. Methodol.
ISSN (print)0081-1750
ScopeSociology and Political Science

Other styles