How to format your references using the Fuel citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fuel. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mignot E. Physiology. The perfect hypnotic? Science 2013;340:36–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Harpole WS, Tilman D. Grassland species loss resulting from reduced niche dimension. Nature 2007;446:791–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Otto SB, Rall BC, Brose U. Allometric degree distributions facilitate food-web stability. Nature 2007;450:1226–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Stoykovich MP, Müller M, Kim SO, Solak HH, Edwards EW, de Pablo JJ, et al. Directed assembly of block copolymer blends into nonregular device-oriented structures. Science 2005;308:1442–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chappell D. The JCT Design and Build Contract 2005. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Hoi SCH, Luo J, Boll S, Xu D, Jin R, King I, editors. Social Media Modeling and Computing. London: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim-Prieto C, Diener E, Tamir M, Scollon C, Diener M. Integrating the Diverse Definitions of Happiness: A Time-Sequential Framework of Subjective Well-Being. In: Delle Fave A, editor. The Exploration of Happiness: Present and Future Perspectives, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013, p. 47–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fuel.

Blog post
Andrews R. Amelia Earhart Could Have Died As A Castaway On A Remote Pacific Island. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Post-9/11 GI Bill: Additional Actions Needed to Help Reduce Overpayments and Increase Collections. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lim T. Information-Theoretic Aspects of Signal Analysis and Reconstruction. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George R. Flying the Flag, Fleeing The State. New York Times 2011:A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFuel
AbbreviationFuel (Lond.)
ISSN (print)0016-2361
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Organic Chemistry
Energy Engineering and Power Technology
Fuel Technology

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