How to format your references using the Society and Mental Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Society and Mental Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Konner, Melvin. 2002. “Seeking Universals.” Nature 415(6868):121.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson, Paul A., and Xiaoping Jia. 2005. “Nonlinear Dynamics, Granular Media and Dynamic Earthquake Triggering.” Nature 437(7060):871–74.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miller, Stephen P., Mark Lunzer, and Antony M. Dean. 2006. “Direct Demonstration of an Adaptive Constraint.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 314(5798):458–61.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Osterloh, A., Luigi Amico, G. Falci, and Rosario Fazio. 2002. “Scaling of Entanglement Close to a Quantum Phase Transition.” Nature 416(6881):608–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knudsen, Steen. 2005. A Biologist’s Guide to Analysis of DNA Microarray Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Takahashi, Kiyoshi, Akihiko Yoshikawa, and Adarsh Sandhu, eds. 2007. Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Fundamental Properties and Modern Photonic and Electronic Devices. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kunkel, Kenneth E., Richard Moss, and Adam Parris. 2016. “Innovations in Science and Scenarios for Assessment.” Pp. 55–68 in The US National Climate Assessment: Innovations in Science and Engagement, Springer Climate, edited by K. Jacobs, S. Moser, and J. Buizer. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Society and Mental Health.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Scientists Find Bacteria That ‘Breathe’ Uranium.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Questions for the Record Related to Amtrak’s Food and Beverage Service. GAO-05-893R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhu, Zinan. 2010. “Financial Restatements: Implications for Management Earnings Forecasts.” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2011. “Open Is Dominated By News of the Weird.” New York Times, September 10, D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Konner 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Johnson and Jia 2005; Konner 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johnson and Jia 2005)
  • Three authors: (Miller, Lunzer, and Dean 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Osterloh et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleSociety and Mental Health
AbbreviationSoc. Ment. Health
ISSN (print)2156-8693
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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