How to format your references using the Society and Mental Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Society and Mental Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check, Erika. 2002. “Alternative Therapies Leave US Commission Divided.” Nature 416(6879):355.
A journal article with 2 authors
Limardo, Alexander J., and Alexandra Z. Worden. 2015. “Microbiology: Exclusive Networks in the Sea.” Nature 522(7554):36–37.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ohl, F. W., H. Scheich, and W. J. Freeman. 2001. “Change in Pattern of Ongoing Cortical Activity with Auditory Category Learning.” Nature 412(6848):733–36.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Vernazza, P., R. P. Binzel, A. Rossi, M. Fulchignoni, and M. Birlan. 2009. “Solar Wind as the Origin of Rapid Reddening of Asteroid Surfaces.” Nature 458(7241):993–95.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burton, Edward. 2016. Business and Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fernandez, Bernard. 2013. Unravelling the Mystery of the Atomic Nucleus: A Sixty Year Journey 1896 — 1956. edited by G. Ripka. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bellman, Allan, Wellesley R. Foshay, and Danny Gremillion. 2014. “A Developmental Model for Adaptive and Differentiated Instruction Using Classroom Networking Technology.” Pp. 91–110 in The Mathematics Teacher in the Digital Era: An International Perspective on Technology Focused Professional Development, Mathematics Education in the Digital Era, edited by A. Clark-Wilson, O. Robutti, and N. Sinclair. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Society and Mental Health.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. “Medical Marijuana Shows Promise Against Autoimmune Diseases.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. Risk and Control of the Software Maintenance Process. 132203. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morr, Rosey. 2015. “Age Discrimination: Prejudice Suppression in the Selection Process.” Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, James C., Jr. 2017. “Man Who Said He Was Angry at Whites Gets 25 Years for Fatal Punch in Union Sq.” New York Times, September 12, A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Check 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Check 2002; Limardo and Worden 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Limardo and Worden 2015)
  • Three authors: (Ohl, Scheich, and Freeman 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Vernazza et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleSociety and Mental Health
AbbreviationSoc. Ment. Health
ISSN (print)2156-8693
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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