How to format your references using the International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nelson, B.: Benefits blues. Nature. 454, 132–133 (2008)
A journal article with 2 authors
Turelli, P., Trono, D.: Editing at the crossroad of innate and adaptive immunity. Science. 307, 1061–1065 (2005)
A journal article with 3 authors
Karlsson, M.P., Tervo, D.G.R., Karpova, A.Y.: Network resets in medial prefrontal cortex mark the onset of behavioral uncertainty. Science. 338, 135–139 (2012)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sun, J., Zhang, X.-P., Li, X.-T., Tang, L., Cui, Y., Zhang, X.-Y., Sun, Y.-S.: Applicable apparent diffusion coefficient of an orthotopic mouse model of gastric cancer by improved clinical MRI diffusion weighted imaging. Sci. Rep. 4, 6072 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chowdhury, S.: Optimization and Business Improvement Studies in Upstream Oil and Gas Industry. John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2016)
An edited book
Davison, B.H., Evans, B.R., Finkelstein, M., McMillan, J.D. eds: Twenty-Sixth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ (2005)
A chapter in an edited book
Hungr, O.: Dynamics of Rapid Landslides. In: Sassa, K., Fukuoka, H., Wang, F., and Wang, G. (eds.) Progress in Landslide Science. pp. 47–57. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing.

Blog post
Hale, T.: How To Check If You’ve Been Hacked Within Seconds,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airport Financing: Comparing Funding Sources With Planned Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1998)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Diaz Gonzalez, A.J.: High-Pressure Study of Bio-inspired Multi-Functional Nanocomposites Using Atomic Force Microscopy Methods, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B.: Federer, Continuing His Rebound, Soars Into Semifinals as Favorite, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing
ISSN (print)1955-2513
ISSN (online)1955-2505
ScopeIndustrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Modelling and Simulation

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