How to format your references using the Probability Theory and Related Fields citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Probability Theory and Related Fields. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aebersold, R.: Constellations in a cellular universe. Nature. 422, 115–116 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Bird, J.P., Ochiai, Y.: Physics. Electron spin polarization in nanoscale constrictions. Science. 303, 1621–1622 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Brose, U., Williams, R.J., Martinez, N.D.: Comment on “Foraging adaptation and the relationship between food-web complexity and stability.” Science. 301, 918; author reply 918 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Davies, B., King, A., Newman, P., Minett, A., Dunstan, C.R., Zreiqat, H.: Hypothesis: bones toughness arises from the suppression of elastic waves. Sci. Rep. 4, 7538 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tibergien, M., Pomering, R.: Practice Made (More) Perfect. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2011)
An edited book
Menze, B.H., Langs, G., Lu, L., Montillo, A., Tu, Z., Criminisi, A. eds: Medical Computer Vision. Recognition Techniques and Applications in Medical Imaging: Second International MICCAI Workshop, MCV 2012, Nice, France, October 5, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Song, C., Chen, Y.: A Special Wohlhart’s Double-Goldberg 6R Linkage and Its Multiple Operation Forms Among 4R and 6R Linkages. In: Dai, J.S., Zoppi, M., and Kong, X. (eds.) Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots I. pp. 45–52. Springer, London (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Probability Theory and Related Fields.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: SpaceX Has Started Testing Its Mars Rocket Engine,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Navigation Planning: Need for a New Direction. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1978)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rutherford, J.: What is old is new again: The role of discontinuity in nostalgia-related consumption, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dobbins, J.: How to Be an Airbnb Host Without Breaking the Law, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProbability Theory and Related Fields
AbbreviationProbab. Theory Relat. Fields
ISSN (print)0178-8051
ISSN (online)1432-2064
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Statistics and Probability

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