How to format your references using the Probability Theory and Related Fields citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Probability Theory and Related Fields. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Antonucci, R.: Astrophysics: Quasars still defy explanation. Nature. 495, 165–167 (2013)
A journal article with 2 authors
Meziane-Cherif, D., Courvalin, P.: Antibiotic resistance: to the rescue of old drugs. Nature. 510, 477–478 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Meng, F., McGrath, K.P., Hoveyda, A.H.: Multifunctional organoboron compounds for scalable natural product synthesis. Nature. 513, 367–374 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sudou, H., Iguchi, S., Murata, Y., Taniguchi, Y.: Orbital motion in the radio galaxy 3C 66B: evidence for a supermassive black hole binary. Science. 300, 1263–1265 (2003)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bartley, T.: Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Cancer. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2011)
An edited book
Navarro-Arribas, G., Torra, V. eds: Advanced Research in Data Privacy. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Schuecker, C., Pettermann, H.E.: Combining Elastic Brittle Damage with Plasticity to Model the Non-linear behavior of Fiber Reinforced Laminates. In: Dávila, C.G., Pinho, S.T., and Remmers, J.J.C. (eds.) Mechanical Response of Composites. pp. 99–117. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2008)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Probability Theory and Related Fields.

Blog post
Hale, T.: Fishermen Find Rare Species Of Giant Squid On Hawaiian Coast,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Executive Guide: Leading Practices in Capital Decision-Making (Supersedes AIMD-98-110). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1998)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richardson, S.: Individual sense of efficacy, collective teacher efficacy and student achievement in high achieving and low achieving urban public schools, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., Neroulias, N.: School Districts Gird For Bad-News Budgets, (2009)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProbability Theory and Related Fields
AbbreviationProbab. Theory Relat. Fields
ISSN (print)0178-8051
ISSN (online)1432-2064
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Statistics and Probability

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