How to format your references using the Probability Theory and Related Fields citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Probability Theory and Related Fields. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pan, H.: Magnetic and electronic evolutions of hydrogenated VTe₂ monolayer under tension. Sci. Rep. 4, 7524 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Sakaguchi, S., Powrie, F.: Emerging challenges in regulatory T cell function and biology. Science. 317, 627–629 (2007)
A journal article with 3 authors
Coaker, G., Falick, A., Staskawicz, B.: Activation of a phytopathogenic bacterial effector protein by a eukaryotic cyclophilin. Science. 308, 548–550 (2005)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sibley, D.A., Bevier, L.R., Patten, M.A., Elphick, C.S.: Comment on “Ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) persists in continental North America.” Science. 311, 1555; author reply 1555 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stacey, W.M.: Fusion. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2010)
An edited book
Grab, S., Knight, J. eds: Landscapes and Landforms of South Africa. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Moos, M.-K., Bennett, A.C.: Preconceptional Health Promotion. In: Handler, A., Kennelly, J., and Peacock, N. (eds.) Reducing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Reproductive and Perinatal Outcomes: The Evidence from Population-Based Interventions. pp. 65–92. Springer US, Boston, MA (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Probability Theory and Related Fields.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: NASA And FEMA Ran An Asteroid Impact Emergency Planning Exercise,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Review Of Status Of Development Toward Establishment Of A Unified National Communications System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1969)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Desai, S.S.: CFD simuation of flow past a rotating circular cylinder with an end plate, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M.: Behind a Gifted Horse, A Powerful Part-Owner, (2012)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProbability Theory and Related Fields
AbbreviationProbab. Theory Relat. Fields
ISSN (print)0178-8051
ISSN (online)1432-2064
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Statistics and Probability

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