How to format your references using the Societies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Societies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Matsuda, R. Materials chemistry: Selectivity from flexibility. Nature 2014, 509, 434–435.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, Y.; Schier, A.F. The zebrafish Nodal signal Squint functions as a morphogen. Nature 2001, 411, 607–610.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mizukami, T.; Wallis, S.R.; Yamamoto, J. Natural examples of olivine lattice preferred orientation patterns with a flow-normal a-axis maximum. Nature 2004, 427, 432–436.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gandha, K.; Elkins, K.; Poudyal, N.; Liu, X.; Liu, J.P. High energy product developed from cobalt nanowires. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5345.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bernstein, L.; Yuhas, C.M. Trustworthy Systems through Quantitative Software Engineering; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471750338.
An edited book
Cano, A. Complex Kleinian Groups; Navarrete, J.P., Seade, J., Eds.; Progress in Mathematics; Springer: Basel, 2013; Vol. 303; ISBN 9783034804806.
A chapter in an edited book
Triantafillou, T. Textile-Reinforced Mortars (TRM). In Composite Materials: A Vision for the Future; Nicolais, L., Meo, M., Milella, E., Eds.; Springer: London, 2011; pp. 113–127 ISBN 9780857291653.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Societies.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Cat Eyes Provide Solution For Looking Inside Nuclear Reactors (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Aviation Administration: Financial Management Issues; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peters, B. From Cybernetics to Cyber Networks: Norbert Wiener, the Soviet Internet, and the Cold War Dawn of Information Universalism. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University: New York, NY, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bennhold, K. In Merkel, a Lofty Symbol for German Women, but an Anomaly. New York Times 2017, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSocieties
AbbreviationSocieties (Basel)
ISSN (online)2075-4698

Other styles