How to format your references using the Societies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Societies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dangl, J.L. Plant Science. Nibbling at the Plant Cell Nucleus. Science 2007, 315, 1088–1089.
A journal article with 2 authors
Estrin, D.; Sim, I. Health Care Delivery. Open MHealth Architecture: An Engine for Health Care Innovation. Science 2010, 330, 759–760.
A journal article with 3 authors
Park, C.Y.; Shcheglovitov, A.; Dolmetsch, R. The CRAC Channel Activator STIM1 Binds and Inhibits L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels. Science 2010, 330, 101–105.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Campbell, A.M.; Eckdahl, T.T.; Fowlks, E.; Heyer, L.J.; Mays Hoopes, L.L.; Ledbetter, M.L.; Rosenwald, A.G. Collaborative Programs. Genome Consortium for Active Teaching (GCAT). Science 2006, 311, 1103–1104.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Plantin, J.-C. Participatory Mapping; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2014; ISBN 9781118966921.
An edited book
Automation: The Future of Weed Control in Cropping Systems; Young, S.L., Pierce, F.J., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2014; ISBN 9789400775114.
A chapter in an edited book
Pardo, A. Combining Datatypes and Effects. In Advanced Functional Programming: 5th International School, AFP 2004, Tartu, Estonia, August 14 – 21, 2004, Revised Lectures; Vene, V., Uustalu, T., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005; pp. 171–209 ISBN 9783540285403.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Societies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. How Rosetta Made An Epic Journey Through Space And Overcame Incredible Challenges (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Army Aviation: Modernization Strategy Needs to Be Reassessed; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Austin, J.H. Performing the Past: Two Pageant Traditions in Nauvoo, Illinois. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. Clinton, Off and Running, Sees the Sun Rise on ’93. New York Times 1993, 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSocieties
AbbreviationSocieties (Basel)
ISSN (online)2075-4698

Other styles