How to format your references using the Journal of Breath Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Breath Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spudich J A 2011 Biochemistry. Molecular motors, beauty in complexity Science 331 1143–4
A journal article with 2 authors
Sato M and Sato K 2011 Degradation of paternal mitochondria by fertilization-triggered autophagy in C. elegans embryos Science 334 1141–4
A journal article with 3 authors
Weaver B A A, Silk A D and Cleveland D W 2006 Cell biology: nondisjunction, aneuploidy and tetraploidy Nature 442 E9-10; discussion E10
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Zubir N A, Yacou C, Motuzas J, Zhang X and Diniz da Costa J C 2014 Structural and functional investigation of graphene oxide-Fe3O4 nanocomposites for the heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction Sci. Rep. 4 4594

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tapiero C S 2010 Risk Finance and Asset Pricing (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Kurian M and Ardakanian R 2015 Governing the Nexus: Water, Soil and Waste Resources Considering Global Change (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Pongracz M and Spéder Z 2008 Attitudes Towards Forms of Partnership People, Population Change and Policies: Lessons from the Population Policy Acceptance Study Vol. 1: Family Change European Studies of Population ed C Höhn, D Avramov and I E Kotowska (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands) pp 93–112

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Breath Research.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 Trials A Step Forward For Medicinal Cannabis But What Comes Next? IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2009 Job Corps: Better Targeted Career Training and Improved Preenrollment Information Could Enhance Female Residential Student Recruitment and Retention (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alderson M 2017 Procedural Justice and Police Encounters with Homeless Injecting Drug Users Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kasich J 2016 Welfare Is Still Broken New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Breath Research
AbbreviationJ. Breath Res.
ISSN (print)1752-7155
ISSN (online)1752-7163
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles