How to format your references using the Journal of Breath Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Breath Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Westerterp K R 2001 Pattern and intensity of physical activity Nature 410 539
A journal article with 2 authors
Fratzl P and Barth F G 2009 Biomaterial systems for mechanosensing and actuation Nature 462 442–8
A journal article with 3 authors
Milo A, Bess E N and Sigman M S 2014 Interrogating selectivity in catalysis using molecular vibrations Nature 507 210–4
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Zhang J, Yan S, Sluyter R, Li W, Alici G and Nguyen N-T 2014 Inertial particle separation by differential equilibrium positions in a symmetrical serpentine micro-channel Sci. Rep. 4 4527

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fabozzi F J and Kothari V 2008 Introduction to Securitization (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Abbasi A M 2015 Wild Edible Vegetables of Lesser Himalayas: Ethnobotanical and Nutraceutical Aspects, Volume 1 ed M H Shah and M A Khan (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Tryfonopoulos C, Idreos S, Koubarakis M and Raftopoulou P 2014 Distributed Large-Scale Information Filtering Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems XIII Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed A Hameurlain, J Küng and R Wagner (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 91–122

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Breath Research.

Blog post
Hamilton K 2015 10 Things You Didn’t Know About Black Holes IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1994 Voice of America: Station Modernization Projects Need to Be Justified (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hinckley M 2014 Socioecological factors that affect adolescent nervousness and depression Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams T and Fernandez M 2016 Victim Posed No Threat to Police, Family Says New York Times A14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Breath Research
AbbreviationJ. Breath Res.
ISSN (print)1752-7155
ISSN (online)1752-7163
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles