How to format your references using the Journal of Breath Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Breath Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harry E J 2014 Microbiology: A beacon for bacterial tubulin Nature 516 175–6
A journal article with 2 authors
Pearson B J and Doe C Q 2003 Regulation of neuroblast competence in Drosophila Nature 425 624–8
A journal article with 3 authors
Dubash N K, Fleurbaey M and Kartha S 2014 Climate policy. Political implications of data presentation Science 345 36–7
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Pascal J M, O’Brien P J, Tomkinson A E and Ellenberger T 2004 Human DNA ligase I completely encircles and partially unwinds nicked DNA Nature 432 473–8

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Banks R E, Sharp J M, Doss S D and Vanderford D A 2016 Exotic Small Mammal Care and Husbandry (Ames, Iowa, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Wong E T 2016 Alternating Electric Fields Therapy in Oncology: A Practical Guide to Clinical Applications of Tumor Treating Fields (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Inselberg A 2014 A Visual Excursion into Parallel Coordinates (Extended Abstract) Man-Machine Interactions 3 Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing ed D A Gruca, T Czachórski and S Kozielski (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 43–52

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Breath Research.

Blog post
Hamilton K 2016 Tracking American Eels On The Open Sea To Crack The Mystery Of Their Migration IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1974 Charges Made by the National Federation of the Blind Against the National Accreditation Council for Agencies Serving the Blind and Visually Handicapped (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hudson W C 2008 Spreading the dao, managing mastership, and performing salvation: The life and alchemical teachings of Chen Zhixu Doctoral dissertation (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J 2017 The Rise of Surreality TV New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Breath Research
AbbreviationJ. Breath Res.
ISSN (print)1752-7155
ISSN (online)1752-7163
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles