How to format your references using the Journal of Breath Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Breath Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McLaren A 2000 Stem cells: golden opportunities with ethical baggage Science 288 1778
A journal article with 2 authors
Dunham-Snary K J and Ballinger S W 2015 GENETICS. Mitochondrial-nuclear DNA mismatch matters Science 349 1449–50
A journal article with 3 authors
Hautier Y, Niklaus P A and Hector A 2009 Competition for light causes plant biodiversity loss after eutrophication Science 324 636–8
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Jiang Y J, Aerne B L, Smithers L, Haddon C, Ish-Horowicz D and Lewis J 2000 Notch signalling and the synchronization of the somite segmentation clock Nature 408 475–9

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety 1995 Guidelines for Safe Storage and Handling of Reactive Materials (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Gutiérrez-López G F, Barbosa-Cánovas G V, Welti-Chanes J and Parada-Arias E 2008 Food Engineering: Integrated Approaches (New York, NY: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Waseda Y, Suzuki S and Saito M 2006 Structural Characterization for a Complex System by Obtaining Middle-Range Ordering Characterization of Corrosion Products on Steel Surfaces ed Y Waseda and S Suzuki (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 77–104

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Breath Research.

Blog post
Hale T 2016 This New Shade Of Blue Was Accidentally Discovered By Chemists IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1994 SSA Services to Employers (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sorensen T R 2010 The Use of Classroom Walk-Through Observations as a Strategy to Improve Teaching and Learning: A Student Centered Perspective Doctoral dissertation ( St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L 2017 On When They Met, and Those Vacancies New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Breath Research
AbbreviationJ. Breath Res.
ISSN (print)1752-7155
ISSN (online)1752-7163
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles