How to format your references using the Social Studies of Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Studies of Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Takahashi T (2004) Ocean science. The fate of industrial carbon dioxide. Science (New York, N.Y.) 305(5682): 352–353.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller JR and Simon P (2008) Materials science. Electrochemical capacitors for energy management. Science (New York, N.Y.) 321(5889): 651–652.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghaffari HO, Nasseri MHB and Young RP (2014) Faulting of rocks in a three-dimensional stress field by micro-anticracks. Scientific reports 4: 5011.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bhardwaj PK, Kapoor R, Mala D, et al. (2013) Braving the attitude of altitude: Caragana jubata at work in cold desert of Himalaya. Scientific reports 3: 1022.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soustelle M (2016) Phase Transformations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mahlow C and Piotrowski M (eds) (2011) Systems and Frameworks for Computational Morphology: Second International Workshop, SFCM 2011, Zurich, Switzerland, August 26, 2011. Proceedings. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kaneko Y (2014) Modeling and Simulation. In: Kondo K, Akolkar RN, Barkey DP, et al. (eds) Copper Electrodeposition for Nanofabrication of Electronics Devices. Nanostructure Science and Technology. New York, NY: Springer, pp. 63–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Studies of Science.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Australia Will Suddenly Move 1.8 Meters North On New Year’s Day. IFLScience. Available at: (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Head Start: Comprehensive Approach to Identifying and Addressing Risks Could Help Prevent Grantee Financial Management Weakenesses. GAO-05-176, 28 February. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stitt CR (2008) Differences in theoretical constructs of processing health information in narrative entertainment television messages. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2017) Theater; Cue the Mayhem: Gogol Returns. New York Times, 24 May.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Takahashi, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Miller and Simon, 2008; Takahashi, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Miller and Simon, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Bhardwaj et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Studies of Science
AbbreviationSoc. Stud. Sci.
ISSN (print)0306-3127
ISSN (online)1460-3659
History and Philosophy of Science
General Social Sciences

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