How to format your references using the Social Studies of Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Studies of Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilmut I (2012) Retrospective. Keith Campbell (1954-2012). Science (New York, N.Y.) 338(6114): 1553.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bochman ML and Schwacha A (2015) DNA replication: Strand separation unravelled. Nature 524(7564): 166–167.
A journal article with 3 authors
Allen M, Raper S and Mitchell J (2001) Climate change. Uncertainty in the IPCC’s Third Assessment Report. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293(5529): 430–433.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Atwood JA 3rd, Weatherly DB, Minning TA, et al. (2005) The Trypanosoma cruzi proteome. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309(5733): 473–476.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Waine C (2008) Obesity and Weight Management in Primary Care. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd.
An edited book
Dasgupta P (ed.) (2008) Urologic Robotic Surgery in Clinical Practice. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Harmáčková ZV, Lorencová EK and Vačkář D (2016) Ecosystem-Based Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction: Costs and Benefits of Participatory Ecosystem Services Scenarios for Šumava National Park, Czech Republic. In: Renaud FG, Sudmeier-Rieux K, Estrella M, et al. (eds) Ecosystem-Based Disaster Risk Reduction and Adaptation in Practice. Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 99–129.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Studies of Science.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Invasive Pythons Feast on Radiotracked Rabbits. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) State Department: Tourist Visa Processing Backlogs Persist at U.S. Consulates. NSIAD-98-69, 13 March. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burns KN (2017) Impact of Cognitive Tasks on Gait Parameters in Collegiate Athletes. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2006) QUICK BITE/Chatham; A Cupful Of Vienna. New York Times, 11 June.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wilmut, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bochman and Schwacha, 2015; Wilmut, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bochman and Schwacha, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Atwood et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Studies of Science
AbbreviationSoc. Stud. Sci.
ISSN (print)0306-3127
ISSN (online)1460-3659
History and Philosophy of Science
General Social Sciences

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