How to format your references using the Social Studies of Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Studies of Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Botstein D (2011) Genome-sequencing anniversary. Fruits of genome sequences for biology. Science (New York, N.Y.) 331(6020): 1025.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gaskell G and Gottweis H (2011) Biobanks need publicity. Nature 471(7337): 159–160.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pertea M, Salzberg SL and Gardner MJ (2000) Finding genes in Plasmodium falciparum. Nature 404(6773): 34; discussion 34-5.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ju B-G, Lunyak VV, Perissi V, et al. (2006) A topoisomerase IIbeta-mediated dsDNA break required for regulated transcription. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312(5781): 1798–1802.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ruske W (1971) Verlag Chemie 1921-1971. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Sampaio P and Saraiva P (eds) (2016) Quality in the 21st Century: Perspectives from ASQ Feigenbaum Medal Winners. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Han Y-S, Ko S-K and Salomaa K (2014) State Complexity of Deletion. In: Shur AM and Volkov MV (eds) Developments in Language Theory: 18th International Conference, DLT 2014, Ekaterinburg, Russia, August 26-29, 2014. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 37–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Studies of Science.

Blog post
Luntz S (2017) Catastrophic Erosion Cut Britain Off From Europe Nearly Half A Million Years Ago. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Air Pollution: FAA’s Reliance on Manufacturers for Jet Engine Emission Testing. RCED-94-99, 13 July. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eaglin M (2012) A secondary data analysis of Latino families who successfully terminated with family preservation. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly BKB, curator of special collections at Hofstra University in Hempstead and based this article on her dissertation in progress at the State University of New York at Stony Brook (1987) THE SUBURBAN REVOLUTION. New York Times, 1 February.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Botstein, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Botstein, 2011; Gaskell and Gottweis, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gaskell and Gottweis, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Ju et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Studies of Science
AbbreviationSoc. Stud. Sci.
ISSN (print)0306-3127
ISSN (online)1460-3659
History and Philosophy of Science
General Social Sciences

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