How to format your references using the Social Studies of Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Studies of Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Webb S (2007) Science careers. Covering the planet with solar panels. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315(5813): 869.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jin X and Costa RM (2010) Start/stop signals emerge in nigrostriatal circuits during sequence learning. Nature 466(7305): 457–462.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aviezer H, Trope Y and Todorov A (2012) Body cues, not facial expressions, discriminate between intense positive and negative emotions. Science (New York, N.Y.) 338(6111): 1225–1229.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Glynne R, Akkaraju S, Healy JI, et al. (2000) How self-tolerance and the immunosuppressive drug FK506 prevent B-cell mitogenesis. Nature 403(6770): 672–676.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ehrlich E and Fanelli D (2012) The Financial Services Marketing Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wasum-Rainer S, Winkelmann I and Tiroch K (eds) (2012) Arctic Science, International Law and Climate Change: Legal Aspects of Marine Science in the Arctic Ocean. Beiträge zum ausländischen öffentlichen Recht und Völkerrecht, Veröffentlichungen des Max-Planck-Instituts für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sarkar M and Theuwissen A (2013) Material Classification Using CMOS Polarization Sensor. In: Theuwissen A (ed.) A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 157–184.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Studies of Science.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) Google’s DeepMind Has An AI That Understands The Benefits Of Betrayal. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Additional Cost Transparency and Design Criteria Needed for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Projects. GAO-11-364R, 3 March. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown ER (2011) Comparison of instructional techniques of high school economics teachers in Georgia and Shenzhen, China. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M (2017) How ‘Great Comet’ Burned Out. New York Times, 29 August.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Webb, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Jin and Costa, 2010; Webb, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jin and Costa, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Glynne et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Studies of Science
AbbreviationSoc. Stud. Sci.
ISSN (print)0306-3127
ISSN (online)1460-3659
History and Philosophy of Science
General Social Sciences

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