How to format your references using the Swiss Medical Weekly citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Swiss Medical Weekly. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buffett BA. Geophysics. Taking Earth’s temperature. Science. 2007 Mar 30;315(5820):1801–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shao Z, Vollrath F. Surprising strength of silkworm silk. Nature. 2002 Aug 15;418(6899):741.
A journal article with 3 authors
Harding EJ, Paul ES, Mendl M. Animal behaviour: cognitive bias and affective state. Nature. 2004 Jan 22;427(6972):312.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lee B-S, Jeon S-Y, Park H, Lee G, Yang H-S, Yu W-R. New electrospinning nozzle to reduce jet instability and its application to manufacture of multi-layered nanofibers. Sci Rep. 2014 Oct 24;4:6758.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Courant R, McShane EJ. Differential and Integral Calculus. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1988.
An edited book
Dwyer T, Purchase H, Delaney A, editors. Diagrammatic Representation and Inference: 8th International Conference, Diagrams 2014, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, July 28 – August 1, 2014. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. XVIII, 311 p. 107 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 8578).
A chapter in an edited book
Camenisch J, Dubovitskaya M, Kohlweiss M, Lapon J, Neven G. Cryptographic Mechanisms for Privacy. In: Camenisch J, Fischer-Hübner S, Rannenberg K, editors. Privacy and Identity Management for Life. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 117–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Swiss Medical Weekly.

Blog post
Fang J. Bird Cries Wolf, Then Steals Your Juicy Grub [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Review of Selected Projects Under the Bilingual Education Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Feb. Report No.: B-164031(1).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pigott C. School Resource Officers and the School-to-Prison Pipeline: Discovering Trends of Expulsions in Public Schools [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Fitting More Into That Bag. New York Times. 2010 Jun 3;E4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSwiss Medical Weekly
AbbreviationSwiss Med. Wkly
ISSN (print)1424-7860
ISSN (online)1424-3997
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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