How to format your references using the Swiss Medical Weekly citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Swiss Medical Weekly. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benner SA. Natural progression. Nature. 2001 Jan 25;409(6819):459.
A journal article with 2 authors
Medina-Elizalde M, Rohling EJ. Collapse of Classic Maya civilization related to modest reduction in precipitation. Science. 2012 Feb 24;335(6071):956–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Olsen A, Vantipalli MC, Lithgow GJ. Checkpoint proteins control survival of the postmitotic cells in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science. 2006 Jun 2;312(5778):1381–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schneider CM, Yazdani N, Araújo NAM, Havlin S, Herrmann HJ. Towards designing robust coupled networks. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1969.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stavroudis ON. The Mathematics of Geometrical and Physical Optics. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2006.
An edited book
Fornæss JE, Irgens M, Wold EF, editors. Complex Geometry and Dynamics: The Abel Symposium 2013. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XIV, 309 p. 6 illus., 2 illus. in color. (Abel Symposia; vol. 10).
A chapter in an edited book
Ozaki T, Kosaka T, Kusukawa K. Effect of Degree of Cure on Damage Development in FRP. In: Beese AM, Zehnder AT, Xia S, editors. Fracture, Fatigue, Failure and Damage Evolution, Volume 8: Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 27–33. (Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Swiss Medical Weekly.

Blog post
Evans K. Thieves Can Steal Your Fingerprints From Your Selfies. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites: Additional Action Needed to Incorporate Lessons Learned from Other Satellite Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Sep. Report No.: GAO-06-1129T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jones LJ. From Corbin and Hillman to Dionysos: The Partial Unveiling of Psyche’s Stage [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly RKR, whose most recent book of poems is ’ ’Not This Island Music, Literature ’ ’ Teaches, writing at Bard College. I AM NOT A HALFBACK. New York Times. 1987 Sep 27;79.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSwiss Medical Weekly
AbbreviationSwiss Med. Wkly
ISSN (print)1424-7860
ISSN (online)1424-3997
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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