How to format your references using the Swiss Medical Weekly citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Swiss Medical Weekly. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willyard C. Imaging: Seeing is believing. Nature. 2011 Dec 14;480(7377):S52-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Harrisingh MC, Nitabach MN. Circadian rhythms. Integrating circadian timekeeping with cellular physiology. Science. 2008 May 16;320(5878):879–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bhagat D, Samanta SK, Bhattacharya S. Efficient management of fruit pests by pheromone nanogels. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1294.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Klauk H, Zschieschang U, Pflaum J, Halik M. Ultralow-power organic complementary circuits. Nature. 2007 Feb 15;445(7129):745–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Robinson MD. An Employer’s and Engineer’s Guide to the FIDIC Conditions of Contract. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
Antsaklis PJ. A Linear Systems Primer. Michel AN, editor. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2007. XVI, 517 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Natour G. The Nakba—Flight and Expulsion of the Palestinians in 1948. In: Hoppe A, editor. Catastrophes: Views from Natural and Human Sciences. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 81–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Swiss Medical Weekly.

Blog post
Andrew E. U.S. And China Join Forces To Build A Bullet Train Between LA And Las Vegas. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: FAA Can Better Forecast and Prevent Equipment Failures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Aug. Report No.: RCED-91-179.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mazza CA. The Influence of Meteorological Parameters on Rainfall and Severe Weather in Pinellas County, FL [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. Commuters Catch a Tune, and Then the Bus Home. New York Times. 2016 Oct 19;A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSwiss Medical Weekly
AbbreviationSwiss Med. Wkly
ISSN (print)1424-7860
ISSN (online)1424-3997
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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