How to format your references using the Social Semiotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Semiotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roff, Derek. 2003. “Evolution. Evolutionary Danger for Rainforest Species.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5629): 58–59.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sininger, Y. S., and B. Cone-Wesson. 2004. “Asymmetric Cochlear Processing Mimics Hemispheric Specialization.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5690): 1581.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lim, May, Richard Metzler, and Yaneer Bar-Yam. 2007. “Global Pattern Formation and Ethnic/Cultural Violence.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 317 (5844): 1540–1544.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Derraik, José G. B., Martin de Bock, Paul L. Hofman, and Wayne S. Cutfield. 2014. “Increasing BMI Is Associated with a Progressive Reduction in Physical Quality of Life among Overweight Middle-Aged Men.” Scientific Reports 4 (January): 3677.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marks, Kenneth H., Larry E. Robbins, Gonzalo Fernández, John P. Funkhouser, and D. L. Williams. 2009. The Handbook of Financing Growth. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Groth, Paul, and James Frew, eds. 2012. Provenance and Annotation of Data and Processes: 4th International Provenance and Annotation Workshop, IPAW 2012, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, June 19-21, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 7525. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bullinger, Monika, Silke Schmidt, and Dieter Naber. 2007. “Cross-Cultural Quality of Life Research in Mental Health.” In Quality of Life Impairment in Schizophrenia, Mood and Anxiety Disorders: New Perspectives on Research and Treatment, edited by Michael S. Ritsner and A. George Awad, 67–98. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Semiotics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Jaguar Attacks Caiman.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Aviation Safety: FAA Needs to More Aggressively Manage Its Inspection Program. T-RCED-92-25. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhao, Lihong. 2017. “Modeling, Estimation and Approximation in Structured Models.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, John. 2016. “Emmys Seek Ratings Winner.” New York Times, September 15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Roff 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Roff 2003; Sininger and Cone-Wesson 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sininger and Cone-Wesson 2004)
  • Three authors: (Lim, Metzler, and Bar-Yam 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Derraik et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Semiotics
ISSN (print)1035-0330
ISSN (online)1470-1219
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language
Cultural Studies

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