How to format your references using the Social Semiotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Semiotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Doms, Robert W. 2010. “Immunology. Prime, Boost, and Broaden.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 329 (5995): 1021–1022.
A journal article with 2 authors
Singla, Veena, and Jeremy F. Reiter. 2006. “The Primary Cilium as the Cell’s Antenna: Signaling at a Sensory Organelle.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5787): 629–633.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zou, Haibo, Alan Zindler, and Yaoling Niu. 2002. “Constraints on Melt Movement beneath the East Pacific Rise from 230Th-238U Disequilibrium.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5552): 107–110.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gros, Jérôme, Marie Manceau, Virginie Thomé, and Christophe Marcelle. 2005. “A Common Somitic Origin for Embryonic Muscle Progenitors and Satellite Cells.” Nature 435 (7044): 954–958.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ocic, Ozren. 2004. Oil Refineries in the 21st Century. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Xiao, Richard. 2015. Corpus-Based Studies of Translational Chinese in English-Chinese Translation. Edited by Xianyao Hu. New Frontiers in Translation Studies. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jonquet, Clement, Pascal Dugenie, and Stefano A. Cerri. 2008. “Service-Based Integration of Grid and Multi-Agent Systems Models.” In Service-Oriented Computing: Agents, Semantics, and Engineering: AAMAS 2008 International Workshop, SOCASE 2008, Estoril, Portugal, May 12, 2008 Proceedings, edited by Ryszard Kowalczyk, Michael Huhns, Matthias Klusch, Zakaria Maamar, and Quoc Bao Vo, 56–68. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Semiotics.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2017. “Study Finds Link Between Gluten-Free Diet And Type 2 Diabetes Risk.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. NASA 5-Year Planning. NSIAD-92-155R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joshi, Rajkumar A. 2010. “Adaptive Nulling in Multiple Beam Antennas Using Quantized State Adaptive Algorithms.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Slotnik, Daniel E. 2017. “Pete Flynn, 79; Kept Mets’ 3 Fields Trim.” New York Times, June 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Doms 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Doms 2010; Singla and Reiter 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Singla and Reiter 2006)
  • Three authors: (Zou, Zindler, and Niu 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Gros et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Semiotics
ISSN (print)1035-0330
ISSN (online)1470-1219
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language
Cultural Studies

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