How to format your references using the Social Semiotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Semiotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Colquhoun, David. 2007. “Science Degrees without the Science.” Nature 446 (7134): 373–374.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matsumoto, Masayuki, and Okihide Hikosaka. 2007. “Lateral Habenula as a Source of Negative Reward Signals in Dopamine Neurons.” Nature 447 (7148): 1111–1115.
A journal article with 3 authors
Newhall, C. G., J. A. Power, and R. S. Punongbayan. 2002. “Pinatubo Eruption. ‘To Make Grow.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5558): 1241–1242.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Reznik, D., G. Sangiovanni, O. Gunnarsson, and T. P. Devereaux. 2008. “Photoemission Kinks and Phonons in Cuprates.” Nature 455 (7213): E6-7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nash, Jen. 2013. Diabetes and Wellbeing. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Saaksvuori, Antti. 2005. Product Lifecycle Management. Edited by Anselmi Immonen. Second Edition. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Yoshida, Yuji. 2008. “Aggregated Mean Ratios of an Interval Induced from Aggregation Operations.” In Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: 5th International Conference, MDAI 2008 Sabadell, Spain, October 30-31, 2008. Proceedings, edited by Vicenç Torra and Yasuo Narukawa, 26–37. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Semiotics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Parasitic Wasp Turns Roaches into Zombie Slaves Using Neurotoxic Cocktail.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Railroad Safety: Human Factor Accidents and Issues Affecting Engineer Work Schedules. RCED-93-160BR. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garraway, Ossian L. 2008. “A Study of the Relationship between Corporate Leaders’ Beliefs and the Firm’s Strategic Decisions.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2011. “Feeling Low, But Standing Together.” New York Times, January 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Colquhoun 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Colquhoun 2007; Matsumoto and Hikosaka 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Matsumoto and Hikosaka 2007)
  • Three authors: (Newhall, Power, and Punongbayan 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Reznik et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Semiotics
ISSN (print)1035-0330
ISSN (online)1470-1219
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language
Cultural Studies

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