How to format your references using the Aquacultural Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aquacultural Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gavaghan, H., 2000. Making moves to redress the gender imbalance. Nature 405, 715–716.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kershaw, M.H., Smyth, M.J., 2013. Immunology. Making macrophages eat cancer. Science 341, 41–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dong, X., Wang, Y., Xia, Y., 2014. Re-building Daniell cell with a Li-ion exchange film. Sci. Rep. 4, 6916.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liberman, M.C., Gao, J., He, D.Z.Z., Wu, X., Jia, S., Zuo, J., 2002. Prestin is required for electromotility of the outer hair cell and for the cochlear amplifier. Nature 419, 300–304.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexander, M., Walkenbach, J., 2010. Excel® Dashboards & Reports. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Le Dret, H., 2016. Partial Differential Equations: Modeling, Analysis and Numerical Approximation, 1st ed. 2016. ed, International Series of Numerical Mathematics. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Burgess, E.W., 2008. The Growth of the City: An Introduction to a Research Project, in: Marzluff, J.M., Shulenberger, E., Endlicher, W., Alberti, M., Bradley, G., Ryan, C., Simon, U., ZumBrunnen, C. (Eds.), Urban Ecology: An International Perspective on the Interaction Between Humans and Nature. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 71–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aquacultural Engineering.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2017. Proxima b, The Closest Exoplanet To Earth, Could Be Habitable [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. Coordination of Government Research and Development (No. 094665). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bankas, J.K., 2014. CAFE—Community and Family Enrichment: Toward Community-Based Mental Health Support for Families (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S., 2016. Where Warhol and Chagall Adorn the Walls. New York Times WE10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gavaghan, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gavaghan, 2000; Kershaw and Smyth, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kershaw and Smyth, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Liberman et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleAquacultural Engineering
AbbreviationAquacult. Eng.
ISSN (print)0144-8609
ScopeAquatic Science

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