How to format your references using the Aquacultural Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aquacultural Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Samarasekera, I.V., 2009. Universities need a new social contract. Nature 462, 160–161.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fletcher, D.A., Mullins, R.D., 2010. Cell mechanics and the cytoskeleton. Nature 463, 485–492.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pesaran, B., Nelson, M.J., Andersen, R.A., 2008. Free choice activates a decision circuit between frontal and parietal cortex. Nature 453, 406–409.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chandrashekar, J., Yarmolinsky, D., von Buchholtz, L., Oka, Y., Sly, W., Ryba, N.J.P., Zuker, C.S., 2009. The taste of carbonation. Science 326, 443–445.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lewis, S., 2016. Positive Psychology and Change. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Rudolph, K.L. (Ed.), 2008. Telomeres and Telomerase in Ageing, Disease, and Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms of Adult Stem Cell Ageing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Catalano, C.E., Ivrissimtzis, I., Nasri, A., 2008. Subdivision Surfaces and Applications, in: Floriani, L.D., Spagnuolo, M. (Eds.), Shape Analysis and Structuring, Mathematics and Visualization. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 115–143.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aquacultural Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. John Oliver Hilariously Interviews Stephen Hawking [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2012. Highway Projects: Survey of State Departments of Transportation (GAO-12-637SP, June 2012), an E-supplement to GAO-12-593 (No. GAO-12-637SP). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Byrd, M.L., 2012. Investigating an Afterschool Program for Black Teenage Males Designed to Increase Self-Efficacy (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Whiteside, K., 2017. Rare Double for a Noted Owner. New York Times B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Samarasekera, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Fletcher and Mullins, 2010; Samarasekera, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fletcher and Mullins, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Chandrashekar et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleAquacultural Engineering
AbbreviationAquacult. Eng.
ISSN (print)0144-8609
ScopeAquatic Science

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