How to format your references using the Aquacultural Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aquacultural Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2003. Capturing competencies. Nature 421, 871.
A journal article with 2 authors
Panchanathan, K., Boyd, R., 2004. Indirect reciprocity can stabilize cooperation without the second-order free rider problem. Nature 432, 499–502.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mashchenko, S., Couchman, H.M.P., Wadsley, J., 2006. The removal of cusps from galaxy centres by stellar feedback in the early Universe. Nature 442, 539–542.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yamamoto-Kawai, M., McLaughlin, F.A., Carmack, E.C., Nishino, S., Shimada, K., 2009. Aragonite undersaturation in the Arctic Ocean: effects of ocean acidification and sea ice melt. Science 326, 1098–1100.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chakrabarty, P., 2012. A Guide to Academia. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Cinquini, L., Minin, A.D., Varaldo, R. (Eds.), 2013. New Business Models and Value Creation: A Service Science Perspective, Sxi — Springer per l’Innovazione / Sxi — Springer for Innovation. Springer, Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Joro, T., Korhonen, P.J., 2015. Multiple Objective Linear Programming, in: Korhonen, P.J. (Ed.), Extension of Data Envelopment Analysis with Preference Information: Value Efficiency, International Series in Operations Research & Management Science. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 41–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aquacultural Engineering.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Scientists Think They Know Why Beagle 2 Didn’t Send A Signal Back From Mars [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1975. College Work-Study Program at the Bay College of Maryland (No. 089626). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Packer-Kinlaw, D., 2012. Anxious journeys: Past, present, and construction of identity in American travel writing (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2016. Head of Columbia Records Promoted to Lead Sony Music. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Panchanathan and Boyd, 2004; Smaglik, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Panchanathan and Boyd, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Yamamoto-Kawai et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleAquacultural Engineering
AbbreviationAquacult. Eng.
ISSN (print)0144-8609
ScopeAquatic Science

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