How to format your references using the Social Indicators Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Indicators Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Radford, T. (2011). Of course scientists can communicate. Nature, 469(7331), 445.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shaw, R. J., & Cantley, L. C. (2006). Ras, PI(3)K and mTOR signalling controls tumour cell growth. Nature, 441(7092), 424–430.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gasparini, Z., Pol, D., & Spalletti, L. A. (2006). An unusual marine crocodyliform from the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary of Patagonia. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5757), 70–73.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Polynkin, P., Kolesik, M., Moloney, J. V., Siviloglou, G. A., & Christodoulides, D. N. (2009). Curved plasma channel generation using ultraintense Airy beams. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5924), 229–232.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mix, P. E. (2004). Introduction to Nondestructive Testing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Caruso, F. (Ed.). (2010). Modern Techniques for Nano- and Microreactors/-reactions (Vol. 229). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cardellini, V., Casalicchio, E., Grassi, V., & Lo Presti, F. (2012). On Guaranteeing Global Dependability Properties in Collaborative Business Process Management. In C. A. Ardagna, E. Damiani, L. A. Maciaszek, M. Missikoff, & M. Parkin (Eds.), Business System Management and Engineering: From Open Issues to Applications (pp. 48–70). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Indicators Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 15). New York Medical Examiners Not Required To Return All Organs, Court Rules. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). U.S. Must Spend More To Maintain Lead in Space Technology (No. FGMSD-80-32). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brecese, J. A. (2012). Out of Our Depth: Hyper-Extensionality and the Return of Three-Dimensional Media (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess, B., & Goldstein, M. (2016, October 5). Justices Asked to Clarify ‘Benefit’ in Insider Trading. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Radford 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Radford 2011; Shaw and Cantley 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shaw and Cantley 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Polynkin et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Indicators Research
AbbreviationSoc. Indic. Res.
ISSN (print)0303-8300
ISSN (online)1573-0921
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology
General Social Sciences
Sociology and Political Science

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