How to format your references using the Social Indicators Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Indicators Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zaanen, J. (2014). High-temperature superconductivity: electron mirages in an iron salt. Nature, 515(7526), 205–206.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lazzaro, B. P., & Rolff, J. (2011). Immunology. Danger, microbes, and homeostasis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6025), 43–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cumings, J., Collins, P. G., & Zettl, A. (2000). Peeling and sharpening multiwall nanotubes. Nature, 406(6796), 586.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Huang, C., Rajfur, Z., Borchers, C., Schaller, M. D., & Jacobson, K. (2003). JNK phosphorylates paxillin and regulates cell migration. Nature, 424(6945), 219–223.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Traitler, H., Coleman, B., & Hofmann, K. (2015). Food Industry Design, Technology and Innovation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fratesi, U., & Senn, L. (Eds.). (2009). Growth and Innovation of Competitive Regions: The Role of Internal and External Connections. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ledger, S., Vidovich, L., & O’Donoghue, T. (2014). The Research Approach. In L. Vidovich & T. O’Donoghue (Eds.), Global to Local Curriculum Policy Processes: The Enactment of the International Baccalaureate in Remote International Schools (pp. 57–83). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Indicators Research.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017, May 29). Bleaching Of The Great Barrier Reef Seen From Space. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Meeting the Aviation Challenges of the 1990s: Experts Define Key Problems and Identify Emerging Issues (No. RCED-91-152). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzalez, S. E. (2014). Ideal leadership practices in Head Start: Understanding leadership from the perspectives of directors and teachers (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M. M. (2017, June 30). The Battle of ‘Morning Joe’: A Presidential Feud. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zaanen 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Lazzaro and Rolff 2011; Zaanen 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lazzaro and Rolff 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Indicators Research
AbbreviationSoc. Indic. Res.
ISSN (print)0303-8300
ISSN (online)1573-0921
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology
General Social Sciences
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles