How to format your references using the Social Indicators Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Indicators Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kupferschmidt, K. (2015). Global health. Report prescribes strong medicine for WHO. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6245), 223–224.
A journal article with 2 authors
Walczyk, T., & von Blanckenburg, F. (2002). Natural iron isotope variations in human blood. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5562), 2065–2066.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bland-Hawthorn, J., Harwit, A., & Harwit, M. (2002). Astronomy. Laser telemetry from space. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5581), 523.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nakayama, H., Shiraki, A., Hirayama, R., Masuda, N., Shimobaba, T., & Ito, T. (2013). Three-dimensional volume containing multiple two-dimensional information patterns. Scientific reports, 3, 1931.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, J., & Roberts, R. (2015). Vital Signs for Nurses. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Schiavon, F., Guglielmi, G., & Rotondo, A. (Eds.). (2012). La comunicazione radiologica nella società del benessere. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hinchliffe, T. E., & Xia, Y. (2015). Developmental Distribution of the δ-Opioid Receptor in Mammalian Brains. In Y. Xia (Ed.), Neural Functions of the Delta-Opioid Receptor (pp. 89–115). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Indicators Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2015, October 26). Study Finds Pork And Human DNA In Vegetarian Hot Dogs. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Distance Education: Challenges for Minority Serving Institutions and Implications for Federal Education Policy (No. GAO-04-78T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Manandhar, R. (2017). Synthesis and Characterization of Some Novel Dinitrosyl Diphosphine Iron Complexes (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fink, S., Risen, J., & Savage, C. (2017, January 19). New Details of C.I.A. Torture, and a New Clash. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kupferschmidt 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Kupferschmidt 2015; Walczyk and von Blanckenburg 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Walczyk and von Blanckenburg 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Nakayama et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Indicators Research
AbbreviationSoc. Indic. Res.
ISSN (print)0303-8300
ISSN (online)1573-0921
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology
General Social Sciences
Sociology and Political Science

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