How to format your references using the Social Indicators Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Indicators Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buriak, J. M. (2004). Chemistry. Chemistry with nanoscale perfection. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5671), 692–693.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gatfield, D., & Izaurralde, E. (2004). Nonsense-mediated messenger RNA decay is initiated by endonucleolytic cleavage in Drosophila. Nature, 429(6991), 575–578.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dally, J. M., Emery, N. J., & Clayton, N. S. (2006). Food-caching western scrub-jays keep track of who was watching when. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5780), 1662–1665.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yanagi, I., Akahori, R., Hatano, T., & Takeda, K.-I. (2014). Fabricating nanopores with diameters of sub-1 nm to 3 nm using multilevel pulse-voltage injection. Scientific reports, 4, 5000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rossi, R. J. (2006). Theorems, Corollaries, Lemmas, and Methods of Proof. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ausiello, G., & Petreschi, R. (Eds.). (2013). The Power of Algorithms: Inspiration and Examples in Everyday Life. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Richter, J. (2016). Centralizers and Pseudo-Degree Functions. In S. Silvestrov & M. Rančić (Eds.), Engineering Mathematics II: Algebraic, Stochastic and Analysis Structures for Networks, Data Classification and Optimization (pp. 65–73). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Indicators Research.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, April 10). First Possible Exomoon Found. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). National Airspace System Modernization: Observations on Potential Funding Options for FAA and the Next Generation Airspace System (No. GAO-06-1114T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schoenecker, K. D. (2010). Determinants of life satisfaction: Generated and ranked by undergraduate college students (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2014, May 18). Texas Noir, by Directors Who Aren’t From Texas. New York Times, p. A25B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buriak 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Buriak 2004; Gatfield and Izaurralde 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gatfield and Izaurralde 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Yanagi et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Indicators Research
AbbreviationSoc. Indic. Res.
ISSN (print)0303-8300
ISSN (online)1573-0921
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology
General Social Sciences
Sociology and Political Science

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