How to format your references using the Journal of Contemporary Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Contemporary Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Retallack GJ. Ediacaran life on land. Nature 2013;493(7430):89–92.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stegemann S, Bock R. Exchange of genetic material between cells in plant tissue grafts. Science 2009;324(5927):649–651.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mabe S, Nagamune T, Kawahara M. Detecting protein-protein interactions based on kinase-mediated growth induction of mammalian cells. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:6127.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Murayama M, Pérez-Garci E, Nevian T et al. Dendritic encoding of sensory stimuli controlled by deep cortical interneurons. Nature 2009;457(7233):1137–1141.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bleistein S. Rapid Organizational Change. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Lozovanu D. Optimization of Stochastic Discrete Systems and Control on Complex Networks: Computational Networks. (Pickl S, ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Riewald M. Thrombin-Activated Protein C: Integrated to Regulate Vascular Physiology. In: Maragoudakis ME, Tsopanoglou NE, eds. Thrombin: Physiology and Disease. New York, NY: Springer; 2009:63–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Contemporary Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Do Try This At Home. IFLScience 2013. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Railroad Regulation: Shipper Experiences and Current Issues in ICC Regulation of Rail Rates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oh Y. Prediction of Steady State Response in Dynamic Mode Atomic Force Microscopy and Its Applications in Nano-metrology. 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B. Iran and Saudis Trade Barbs With Pilgrimage Set to Start. New York Times. September 7, 2016:A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Contemporary Medicine
ISSN (online)2146-6009

Other styles