How to format your references using the Journal of Contemporary Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Contemporary Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sekercioglu CH. Ecology. Functional extinctions of bird pollinators cause plant declines. Science 2011;331(6020):1019–1020.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith JS, Boeke JD. Transcription. Is S phase important for transcriptional silencing? Science 2001;291(5504):608–609.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mitchell MW, Lundeen JS, Steinberg AM. Super-resolving phase measurements with a multiphoton entangled state. Nature 2004;429(6988):161–164.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pauwels L, Barbero GF, Geerinck J et al. NINJA connects the co-repressor TOPLESS to jasmonate signalling. Nature 2010;464(7289):788–791.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wernecke R. Industrielle Feuchtemessung. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2003.
An edited book
Freeden W, Nashed MZ, Sonar T, eds. Handbook of Geomathematics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Grønbæk B, Valente P, Hallenborg K. Information Extraction System Using Indoor Location and Activity Plan. In: Demazeau Y, Pěchoucěk M, Corchado JM, Pérez JB, eds. Advances on Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems: 9th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems. Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011:33–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Contemporary Medicine.

Blog post
Taub B. Oxytocin May Make You Better At Keeping A Beat. IFLScience 2016. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highlights of a GAO Forum: The Federal Government’s Role in Improving Financial Literacy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis TE. Sedimentation solutions for the Port of Gulfport, MS. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L. That’s Not How It Went On the Deal With Iran. New York Times. October 10, 2017:A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Contemporary Medicine
ISSN (online)2146-6009

Other styles