How to format your references using the Biological Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jokipii, J.R., 2007. Planetary science. A local wiggle in the turbulent interstellar magnetic field. Science 316, 839–840.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brunauer, R., Kennedy, B.K., 2015. Medicine. Progeria accelerates adult stem cell aging. Science 348, 1093–1094.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ganem, N.J., Godinho, S.A., Pellman, D., 2009. A mechanism linking extra centrosomes to chromosomal instability. Nature 460, 278–282.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zohar, Y.C., Yochelis, S., Dahmen, K.A., Jung, G., Paltiel, Y., 2013. Controlling avalanche criticality in 2D nano arrays. Sci. Rep. 3, 1845.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fitzgerald, R.W., Meacham, B.J., 2017. Fire Performance Analysis for Buildings. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Dehne, F., Sack, J.-R., Zeh, N. (Eds.), 2007. Algorithms and Data Structures: 10th International Workshop, WADS 2007, Halifax, Canada, August 15-17, 2007. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Hulbert, G.M., Ma, Z.-D., Wang, J., 2005. Gluing for Dynamic Simulation of Distributed Mechanical Systems, in: Ambrósio, J.A.C. (Ed.), Advances in Computational Multibody Systems, Computational Methods in Applied Sciences. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 69–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Conservation.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. An Animal That Could Rewrite The Family Tree: One Of The Top New Species Of 2015 [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Aviation Safety: Information on FAA’s Age 60 Rule for Pilots (No. RCED-90-45FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Viruet, H.B., 2006. Effect of Forklift Operation on Lower Back Pain: An Evidence-Based Approach (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Swansburg, J., 2017. Men of Summer. New York Times BR14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jokipii, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Brunauer and Kennedy, 2015; Jokipii, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brunauer and Kennedy, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Zohar et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Conservation
AbbreviationBiol. Conserv.
ISSN (print)0006-3207
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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