How to format your references using the Biological Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hampsey, M., 2012. Molecular biology. A new direction for gene loops. Science 338, 624–625.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pisharody, S.N., Jones, R.R., 2004. Probing two-electron dynamics of an atom. Science 303, 813–815.
A journal article with 3 authors
Donoso, M., Collins, A.G.E., Koechlin, E., 2014. Human cognition. Foundations of human reasoning in the prefrontal cortex. Science 344, 1481–1486.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Frattini, V., Pagnotta, S.M., Tala, Fan, J.J., Russo, M.V., Lee, S.B., Garofano, L., Zhang, J., Shi, P., Lewis, G., Sanson, H., Frederick, V., Castano, A.M., Cerulo, L., Rolland, D.C.M., Mall, R., Mokhtari, K., Elenitoba-Johnson, K.S.J., Sanson, M., Huang, X., Ceccarelli, M., Lasorella, A., Iavarone, A., 2018. A metabolic function of FGFR3-TACC3 gene fusions in cancer. Nature 553, 222–227.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wind, Y.J., Hays, C.F., 2015. Beyond Advertising. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Frohlich, E.D., Re, R.N. (Eds.), 2009. The Local Cardiac Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System, Second Edition. ed. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Mañay, N., Cousillas, A.Z., Alvarez, C., Heller, T., 2008. Lead Contamination in Uruguay: The “La Teja” Neighborhood Case, in: Whitacre, D.M. (Ed.), Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 93–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Conservation.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Hepatitis C: Behind New Wonder Drugs Lies A Terrible Dilemma [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015. Pedestrians and Cyclists: Cities, States, and DOT Are Implementing Actions to Improve Safety (No. GAO-16-66). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez, A.M., 2010. Moving in foster care: Voices of adults who experienced multiple foster care placements in childhood (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2017. Streaming Services Struggle to Root Out Music That Incites Hatred. New York Times B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hampsey, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hampsey, 2012; Pisharody and Jones, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pisharody and Jones, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Frattini et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Conservation
AbbreviationBiol. Conserv.
ISSN (print)0006-3207
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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