How to format your references using the Social Geography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Geography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lal, R.: Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security, Science, 304, 1623–1627, 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pérez-Gussinyé, M. and Watts, A. B.: The long-term strength of Europe and its implications for plate-forming processes, Nature, 436, 381–384, 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barnes, S. E., Ieda, J., and Maekawa, S.: Rashba spin-orbit anisotropy and the electric field control of magnetism, Sci. Rep., 4, 4105, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Carrano, A. C., Liu, Z., Dillin, A., and Hunter, T.: A conserved ubiquitination pathway determines longevity in response to diet restriction, Nature, 460, 396–399, 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coles, A. and Hawkins, D. G.: MIDAS Technical Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
Reichow, B., Doehring, P., Cicchetti, D. V., and Volkmar, F. R. (Eds.): Evidence-Based Practices and Treatments for Children with Autism, Springer US, Boston, MA, XVIII, 408 p. 4 illus pp., 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Cummins, D. J.: Pharmaceutical Drug Discovery: Designing the Blockbuster Drug, in: Screening: Methods for Experimentation in Industry, Drug Discovery, and Genetics, edited by: Dean, A. and Lewis, S., Springer, New York, NY, 69–114, 2006.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Geography.

Blog post
Banana Molecule Fights HIV And Hepatitis C:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: High Performance Computing and Communications: New Program Direction Would Benefit from a More Focused Effort, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Panjabi, C.: Real and imagined immigrant identities in the public sphere: Representations of South Asian women in literary and television media, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G.: A Thick Résumé for a Tough Job, New York Times, 30th July, D6, 2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lal, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Lal, 2004; Pérez-Gussinyé and Watts, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pérez-Gussinyé and Watts, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Carrano et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Geography
ISSN (print)1729-4274
ISSN (online)1729-4312

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