How to format your references using the Social Geography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Geography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McDowell, N.: Lords blast red tape in animal experiments, Nature, 418, 358, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Low, H. H. and Löwe, J.: A bacterial dynamin-like protein, Nature, 444, 766–769, 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, M. C., O’Rourke, E. J., and Ruvkun, G.: Fat metabolism links germline stem cells and longevity in C. elegans, Science, 322, 957–960, 2008.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Hu, R., Wei, X., Hu, J., and Luo, X.: Local heating realization by reverse thermal cloak, Sci. Rep., 4, 3600, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Higman, B. W.: How Food Made History, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2011.
An edited book
Phinney, D. G. (Ed.): Adult Stem Cells: Biology and Methods of Analysis, 1st ed., Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, XI, 279 p pp., 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Luby, S. and Gurley, E.: Epidemiology of Henipaviruses, in: Global Virology I - Identifying and Investigating Viral Diseases, edited by: Shapshak, P., Sinnott, J. T., Somboonwit, C., and Kuhn, J. H., Springer, New York, NY, 55–71, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Geography.

Blog post
The Entire San Andreas Fault Could Rupture During The “Big One”:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal R&D Laboratories--Directors’ Perspectives on Management, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shamloo Aliabadi, E.: The effect of distortion on trajectory of diesel Particulate Matters (PM) from mobile sources, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: A Ceremonial Start to the Session as the Supreme Court Welcomes a New Chief Justice, New York Times, 4th October, A25, 2005.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McDowell, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (McDowell, 2002; Low and Löwe, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Low and Löwe, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Hu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Geography
ISSN (print)1729-4274
ISSN (online)1729-4312

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