How to format your references using the Social Geography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Geography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoag, H.: In search of form and function, Nature, 425(6960), 880–881, 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lopes, I. and Silk, J.: Neutrino spectroscopy can probe the dark matter content in the Sun, Science, 330(6003), 462, 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kraft, N. J. B., Valencia, R. and Ackerly, D. D.: Functional traits and niche-based tree community assembly in an Amazonian forest, Science, 322(5901), 580–582, 2008.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Sahai, R., Morris, M., Knapp, G. R., Young, K. and Barnbaum, C.: A collimated, high-speed outflow from the dying star V Hydrae, Nature, 426(6964), 261–264, 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bakker, J. and Clarke, R. J.: Wine Flavour Chemistry, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK., 2011.
An edited book
Choudhury, B.: Active Terahertz Metamaterial for Biomedical Applications, 1st ed. 2016., edited by A. Menon and R. M. Jha, Springer, Singapore., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Aydın, A. O. and Orgun, M. A.: The Reactive-Causal Cognitive Agent Architecture, in Advances in Cognitive Informatics and Cognitive Computing, edited by Y. Wang, D. Zhang, and W. Kinsner, pp. 71–103, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2010.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Geography.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: California’s Majestic Trees Are Declining — A Harbinger Of Future Forests, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Tax Systems Modernization: Program Status and Comments on IRS’ Portion of President’s Request For Fiscal Year 1993 Supplemental Funds, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zanulabe Din, M. O.: Engineered Synchrony of Bacterial Lysis and its Applications, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA., 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B.: Questions of Judgment Engulf Barclays’ Chief, New York Times, 12th May, B1, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoag, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Hoag, 2003; Lopes and Silk, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lopes and Silk, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Sahai et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Geography
ISSN (print)1729-4274
ISSN (online)1729-4312

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