How to format your references using the Social Geography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Geography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pfennig, K. S.: Facultative mate choice drives adaptive hybridization, Science, 318, 965–967, 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
Golder, S. A. and Macy, M. W.: Diurnal and seasonal mood vary with work, sleep, and daylength across diverse cultures, Science, 333, 1878–1881, 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yaguchi, S., Yaguchi, J., and Inaba, K.: bicaudal-C is required for the formation of anterior neurogenic ectoderm in the sea urchin embryo, Sci. Rep., 4, 6852, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Muranyi, W., Haas, J., Wagner, M., Krohne, G., and Koszinowski, U. H.: Cytomegalovirus recruitment of cellular kinases to dissolve the nuclear lamina, Science, 297, 854–857, 2002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heywood, J.: Engineering Education, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
Vardanega, T. and Wellings, A. (Eds.): Reliable Software Technology – Ada-Europe 2005: 10th Ada-Europe International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies, York, UK, June 20-24, 2005. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XVI, 276 p pp., 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Bagdanov, A. D., Del Bimbo, A., Landucci, L., and Pernici, F.: MNEMOSYNE: Enhancing the Museum Experience through Interactive Media and Visual Profiling, in: Multimedia for Cultural Heritage: First International Workshop, MM4CH 2011, Modena, Italy, May 3, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, edited by: Grana, C. and Cucchiara, R., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 39–50, 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Geography.

Blog post
Robocabs: How Long Before you Ditch Your Car for a Driverless Electric Taxi?, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Space Operations: NASA’s Use of Information Technology, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duerr, P. S.: Investigation of marine waterjet inlets during turning maneuvers, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J.: Views Conflict on Exxon Mobil’s Ties to Those Who Reject Climate Science, New York Times, 14th September, A15, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pfennig, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Pfennig, 2007; Golder and Macy, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Golder and Macy, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Muranyi et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Geography
ISSN (print)1729-4274
ISSN (online)1729-4312

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