How to format your references using the Critical Ultrasound Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Ultrasound Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brody H (2015) Prostate cancer. Nature 528:S117
A journal article with 2 authors
Apps R, Carrington M (2013) Response to Comment on “Influence of HLA-C expression level on HIV control.” Science 341:1175
A journal article with 3 authors
Weber W, Riesen S, Siegmann HC (2001) Magnetization precession by hot spin injection. Science 291:1015–1018
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Allen EA, Pasley BN, Duong T, Freeman RD (2007) Transcranial magnetic stimulation elicits coupled neural and hemodynamic consequences. Science 317:1918–1921

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Noldus R (2006) CAMEL. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Humar A, Sturdevant ML (2015) Atlas of Organ Transplantation, 2nd ed. 2015. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Epstein SL, Petrovic S (2012) Learning a Mixture of Search Heuristics. In: Hamadi Y, Monfroy E, Saubion F (eds) Autonomous Search. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 97–127

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Ultrasound Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E (2013) Video shows that seahorses are master assassins of the ocean. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) The Air Force Continued To Develop the Advanced Logistics System, a Program It Was Directed To Cancel. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bouyer J (2017) Temporary Leadership in Athletics: The Experiences of Interim NCAA Directors of Athletics. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B (2017) Instead of Hero’s Welcome, Treason Charges. New York Times A7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Ultrasound Journal
AbbreviationCrit. Ultrasound J.
ISSN (print)2036-3176
ISSN (online)2036-7902
ScopeRadiological and Ultrasound Technology

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