How to format your references using the Critical Ultrasound Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Ultrasound Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Apeloig Y (2011) Chemistry. The diamond within a silicon analog of cyclobutadiene. Science 331:1277–1278
A journal article with 2 authors
Davidson K, Humphreys RM (2012) The Great Eruption of η Carinae. Nature 486:E1; discussion E1-2
A journal article with 3 authors
Queitsch C, Sangster TA, Lindquist S (2002) Hsp90 as a capacitor of phenotypic variation. Nature 417:618–624
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hawthorne MF, Zink JI, Skelton JM, et al (2004) Electrical or photocontrol of the rotary motion of a metallacarborane. Science 303:1849–1851

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bhaskar K, Varadan Retd. TK (2014) Plates. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Hahn H, Sidorenko A, Tiginyanu I (2009) Nanoscale Phenomena: Fundamentals and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Pascucci A, Runggaldier WJ (2009) Tassi d’interesse. In: Runggaldier WJ (ed) Finanza Matematica: Teoria e problemi per modelli multiperiodali. Springer, Milano, pp 199–261

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Ultrasound Journal.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Oldest Man In History Claims To Be 145 But Wants To Die. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979) Energy Information Administration’s Proposed Energy Company Financial Reporting System Collection Form. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warner KS (2014) The narrative structure of children’s books used in language therapy: An analysis. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1992) THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: In Hindsight; Texas-Size Failure. New York Times 111

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Ultrasound Journal
AbbreviationCrit. Ultrasound J.
ISSN (print)2036-3176
ISSN (online)2036-7902
ScopeRadiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles