How to format your references using the Critical Ultrasound Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Ultrasound Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pegrum CM (2006) Applied physics. Can a fraction of a quantum be better than a whole one? Science 312:1483–1484
A journal article with 2 authors
Yin Q-Z, Jacobsen SB (2006) Geochemistry: does U-Pb date Earth’s core formation? Nature 444:E1; discussion E2-3
A journal article with 3 authors
Rubinstein SM, Cohen G, Fineberg J (2004) Detachment fronts and the onset of dynamic friction. Nature 430:1005–1009
A journal article with 5 or more authors
O’Brien CM, Fox CJ, Planque B, Casey J (2000) Climate variability and North Sea cod. Nature 404:142

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morag N (2011) Comparative Homeland Security. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Boos N, Aebi M (2008) Spinal Disorders: Fundamentals of Diagnosis and Treatment. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Böttcher A, Widom H (2007) From Toeplitz Eigenvalues through Green’s Kernels to Higher-order Wirtinger-Sobolev Inequalities. In: Dritschel MA (ed) The Extended Field of Operator Theory. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp 73–87

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Ultrasound Journal.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) Contraceptive Pill Could Help Recovery From Flu. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) NASA ADP Systems: Information on the Automated Mission and Payload Tracking System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilensky SE (2010) 340B prime vendor program: Health center decision making and barriers to participation. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Vlasic B, Chapman MM (2015) Smaller Pay Gap in New Contract at Fiat Chrysler. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Ultrasound Journal
AbbreviationCrit. Ultrasound J.
ISSN (print)2036-3176
ISSN (online)2036-7902
ScopeRadiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles