How to format your references using the Critical Ultrasound Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Ultrasound Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hand E (2014) Comet Breakthrough of the Year + People’s choice. Science 346:1442–1443
A journal article with 2 authors
Dohoney KM, Gelles J (2001) Chi-sequence recognition and DNA translocation by single RecBCD helicase/nuclease molecules. Nature 409:370–374
A journal article with 3 authors
Thomas DSG, Knight M, Wiggs GFS (2005) Remobilization of southern African desert dune systems by twenty-first century global warming. Nature 435:1218–1221
A journal article with 5 or more authors
DePaolo RW, Abadie V, Tang F, et al (2011) Co-adjuvant effects of retinoic acid and IL-15 induce inflammatory immunity to dietary antigens. Nature 471:220–224

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dunnivant FM (2004) Environmental Laboratory Exercises for Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Geary TG, Maule AG (2010) Neuropeptide Systems as Targets for Parasite and Pest Control. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Wang S, Lv F (2013) Biomacromolecule Delivery System Based on Functionalized Conjugated Polyelectrolytes. In: Lv F (ed) Functionalized Conjugated Polyelectrolytes: Design and Biomedical Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 57–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Ultrasound Journal.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Skull Vibrations Help Baleen Whales Hear. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Pipeline Safety: Preliminary Information on the Office of Pipeline Safety’s Actions to Strengthen Its Enforcement Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberts JE (2010) Process evaluation of the Instant Word Notebook. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2017) Theater; Have Rocket, Will Travel. New York Times AR4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Ultrasound Journal
AbbreviationCrit. Ultrasound J.
ISSN (print)2036-3176
ISSN (online)2036-7902
ScopeRadiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles