How to format your references using the Multiple Sclerosis Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multiple Sclerosis Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Solomon SC. Planetary science. Hot news on Mercury’s core. Science. 2007; 316(5825):702–703.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Krivtsov AV, Armstrong SA. Cancer. Can one cell influence cancer heterogeneity? Science. 2012; 338(6110):1035–1036.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hubbell JA, Thomas SN, Swartz MA. Materials engineering for immunomodulation. Nature. 2009; 462(7272):449–460.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
1. Tanaka H, Okano Y, Kobayashi H, Suzuki W, Kobayashi A. A three-dimensional synthetic metallic crystal composed of single-component molecules. Science. 2001; 291(5502):285–287.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Tschirhart M, Bielefeld W. Managing Nonprofit Organizations. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Busson P ed. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Keys for Translational Medicine and Biology. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Jiang W, Zhu J, Xu J, et al. HV: A Feature Based Method for Trajectory Dataset Profiling. In: Wang J, Cellary W, Wang D, et al., eds. Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2015: 16th International Conference, Miami, FL, USA, November 1-3, 2015, Proceedings, Part I. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:46–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multiple Sclerosis Journal.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Cancer Patient Receives 3D-Printed Titanium Ribcage. IFLScience. 2015. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. NASA: Briefing on National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Programs and Associated Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Zuckerman T. The Effect of Communication Between Parents and their Emerging Adult Offspring on Depression and Career Search Self-efficacy. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Murphy MJO. A Watcher in the Night. New York Times. 2011:BR15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1],[2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMultiple Sclerosis Journal
AbbreviationMult. Scler.
ISSN (print)1352-4585
ISSN (online)1477-0970
ScopeClinical Neurology

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