How to format your references using the Multiple Sclerosis Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multiple Sclerosis Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Evans JA. Computer science. Future science. Science. 2013; 342(6154):44–45.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Markus MB, Fincham JE. Mbeki and AIDS in Africa. Science. 2000; 288(5474):2131d.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wang C-W, Ka S-M, Chen A. Robust image registration of biological microscopic images. Sci. Rep. 2014; 4:6050.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
1. Mecklenbräuker I, Saijo K, Zheng N-Y, Leitges M, Tarakhovsky A. Protein kinase Cdelta controls self-antigen-induced B-cell tolerance. Nature. 2002; 416(6883):860–865.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. George MD, Donley TG, Preshaw PM. Ultrasonic Periodontal Debridement. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Lowes T. Pre-Hospital Anesthesia Handbook. 2nd ed. 2016. (Gospel A, Griffiths A, Henning J, eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Brenner DJ, Staley JT, Krieg NR. Classification of Procaryotic Organisms and the Concept of Bacterial Speciation. In: Brenner DJ, Krieg NR, Staley JT, Garrity GM, eds. Bergey’s Manual® of Systematic Bacteriology: Volume Two: The Proteobacteria, Part A Introductory Essays. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005:27–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multiple Sclerosis Journal.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Most Of Our Galaxy’s Antimatter Comes From Supernovae. IFLScience. 2017. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/space/most-of-our-galaxys-antimatter-comes-from-supernova/ [Accessed October 30, 2018].

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Allowances for Independent Research and Development Costs in Negotiated Contracts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1970.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gade S. Design and Implementation of Hybrid Hyperchaotic Sequences for Chaos-Based Communication Systems. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Koblin J. TV in the Age of Trump. New York Times. 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1],[2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMultiple Sclerosis Journal
AbbreviationMult. Scler.
ISSN (print)1352-4585
ISSN (online)1477-0970
ScopeClinical Neurology
Neurology

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