How to format your references using the Multiple Sclerosis Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multiple Sclerosis Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Savage N. Fuel options: The ideal biofuel. Nature. 2011; 474(7352):S9-11.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ezzati M, Riboli E. Can noncommunicable diseases be prevented? Lessons from studies of populations and individuals. Science. 2012; 337(6101):1482–1487.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Jakosky BM, Haberle RM, Arvidson RE. Planetary science. The changing picture of volatiles and climate on Mars. Science. 2005; 310(5753):1439–1440.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
1. Briseno AL, Mannsfeld SCB, Ling MM, et al. Patterning organic single-crystal transistor arrays. Nature. 2006; 444(7121):913–917.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Cicek V. Corrosion Engineering and Cathodic Protection Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Sacco GM, Tzitzikas Y eds. Dynamic Taxonomies and Faceted Search: Theory, Practice, and Experience. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Chao N-H, Liao IC. Sustainable Approaches for Aquaculture Development: Looking Ahead Through Lessons in the Past. In: Bert TM, ed. Ecological and Genetic Implications of Aquaculture Activities. Methods and Technologies in Fish Biology and Fisheries. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007:73–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multiple Sclerosis Journal.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Cheap Oral Cholera Vaccine Effective in Large-Scale Trial. IFLScience. 2015. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Office of Science and Technology Policy: Violation of the Antideficiency Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Younis KM. The impact of moral values on ethical practices in environmental management. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Van Gelder SKC by L. Arts, Briefly; Saving Shostakovich. New York Times. 2004:E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1],[2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMultiple Sclerosis Journal
AbbreviationMult. Scler.
ISSN (print)1352-4585
ISSN (online)1477-0970
ScopeClinical Neurology

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