How to format your references using the Multiple Sclerosis Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multiple Sclerosis Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hoag H. Testing new ground. Nature. 2004; 429(6992):682–683.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Weir JT, Schluter D. The latitudinal gradient in recent speciation and extinction rates of birds and mammals. Science. 2007; 315(5818):1574–1576.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Durniak KJ, Bailey S, Steitz TA. The structure of a transcribing T7 RNA polymerase in transition from initiation to elongation. Science. 2008; 322(5901):553–557.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
1. Liang H-L, Nien C-Y, Liu H-Y, et al. The zinc-finger protein Zelda is a key activator of the early zygotic genome in Drosophila. Nature. 2008; 456(7220):400–403.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Stacey WM. Fusion Plasma Physics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
1. Bangsow S ed. Use Cases of Discrete Event Simulation: Appliance and Research. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Christen P, Vatsalan D, Fu Z. Advanced Record Linkage Methods and Privacy Aspects for Population Reconstruction—A Survey and Case Studies. In: Bloothooft G, Christen P, Mandemakers K, Schraagen M, eds. Population Reconstruction. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:87–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multiple Sclerosis Journal.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Scientists Engineer Chickens With Dinosaur Snouts. IFLScience. 2015. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/dinosaur-chicken-and-back-again/ [Accessed October 30, 2018].

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. High Risk Series: NASA Contract Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Zhu M. Numerical Investigation of Encapsulation Technology in Polymer Flooding Processes. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Dobbins J. How to Be an Airbnb Host Without Breaking the Law. New York Times. 2017:RE12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1],[2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMultiple Sclerosis Journal
AbbreviationMult. Scler.
ISSN (print)1352-4585
ISSN (online)1477-0970
ScopeClinical Neurology
Neurology

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