How to format your references using the Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Melcher, D. 2001. Persistence of visual memory for scenes. Nature 412:401.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aldecoa, R., and I. Marín. 2013. Surprise maximization reveals the community structure of complex networks. Sci. Rep. 3:1060.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu, Q., Y. Geng, and P. Sicinski. 2001. Specific protection against breast cancers by cyclin D1 ablation. Nature 411:1017–1021.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dong, X., A. Biswas, K. E. Süel, L. K. Jackson, R. Martinez, H. Gu, and Y. M. Chook. 2009. Structural basis for leucine-rich nuclear export signal recognition by CRM1. Nature 458:1136–1141.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ibe, O. C. 2013. Elements of Random Walk and Diffusion Processes. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Mathena, J. 2009. Success with Microsoft Dynamics CRM 4.0: Implementing Customer Relationship Management. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, S.-J., Y.-C. Lan, W.-C. Tsai, and Y.-H. Hu. 2012. Energy-Aware Task Scheduling for Noc-Based DVS System. Pp. 69–88 in Y.-C. Lan, W.-C. Tsai, and Y.-H. Hu, eds. Reconfigurable Networks-on-Chip. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Evolution.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014. Common Misconceptions About Global Warming. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Solid Rocket Motors: Loss of Oxidizer Production Necessitates Emergency Allocation Procedures. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grether, S. 2012. All You Need is Love? An Examination of Interracial Divorce. George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. 2017. Old Board, Hub’s Heart, Goes Out of Service.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Melcher 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Melcher 2001; Aldecoa and Marín 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aldecoa and Marín 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Dong et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEvolution
ISSN (print)0014-3820
ISSN (online)1558-5646
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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