How to format your references using the Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lee, P. H. 2014. Should we adjust for a confounder if empirical and theoretical criteria yield contradictory results? A simulation study. Sci. Rep. 4:6085.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, B. W., and N. A. Clark. 2001. Alignment of liquid crystals with patterned isotropic surfaces. Science 291:2576–2580.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marasco, A., A. Limongiello, and M. Migliore. 2013. Using Strahler’s analysis to reduce up to 200-fold the run time of realistic neuron models. Sci. Rep. 3:2934.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hoeijmakers, H. J., D. Ehrenreich, K. Heng, D. Kitzmann, S. L. Grimm, R. Allart, R. Deitrick, A. Wyttenbach, M. Oreshenko, L. Pino, P. B. Rimmer, E. Molinari, and L. Di Fabrizio. 2018. Atomic iron and titanium in the atmosphere of the exoplanet KELT-9b. Nature 560:453–455.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Glisic, S. 2005. Advanced Wireless Communications. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Greve, A. 2010. Thermal Design and Thermal Behaviour of Radio Telescopes and their Enclosures. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Gaševic, D., D. Djuric, and V. Devedžic. 2009. Model Driven Engineering. Pp. 125–155 in D. Djuric and D. Ga¿evic, eds. Model Driven Engineering and Ontology Development. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Evolution.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014. Ancient Meteorite Sheds Light On The Early Solar System’s Magnetic Field. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. Aviation Security: FAA Needs Preboard Passenger Screening Performance Standards. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yi, M. 2015. Interrater reliability between novice and expert functional movement screen raters. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. 2005. World Briefing | Asia: Agreement On Last Leg Of Border.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lee 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Lee and Clark 2001; Lee 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee and Clark 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Hoeijmakers et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEvolution
ISSN (print)0014-3820
ISSN (online)1558-5646
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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