How to format your references using the Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. 2005. Attractive information. Nature 435:529.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wong, M., and S. Munro. 2014. Membrane trafficking. The specificity of vesicle traffic to the Golgi is encoded in the golgin coiled-coil proteins. Science 346:1256898.
A journal article with 3 authors
Piscitelli, C. L., H. Krishnamurthy, and E. Gouaux. 2010. Neurotransmitter/sodium symporter orthologue LeuT has a single high-affinity substrate site. Nature 468:1129–1132.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cohen, E., J. Bieschke, R. M. Perciavalle, J. W. Kelly, and A. Dillin. 2006. Opposing activities protect against age-onset proteotoxicity. Science 313:1604–1610.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grous, A. 2012. Fracture Mechanics 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Park, H., and K.-K. Kim (eds). 2014. Korean Education in Changing Economic and Demographic Contexts. Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Talreja, R. 2015. Analysis of Failure in Composite Structures. Pp. 255–278 in H. Altenbach and T. Sadowski, eds. Failure and Damage Analysis of Advanced Materials. Springer, Vienna.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Evolution.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014. Researchers Discover Unique Aging “Signature” In Brains Of Mice And Humans. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Graduate Medical Education: Trends in Training and Student Debt. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Toosi, F. 2017. Decision Analysis Techniques for Adult Learners: Application to Leadership. Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. 2012. Londoners Adopt Twisted Loyalties.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2005; Wong and Munro 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wong and Munro 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Cohen et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEvolution
ISSN (print)0014-3820
ISSN (online)1558-5646
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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