How to format your references using the Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reedijk, J. 2005. Chemistry. Dioxygen surprises. Science 308:1876–1877.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clubb, R., and G. Mason. 2003. Animal welfare: captivity effects on wide-ranging carnivores. Nature 425:473–474.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rebbeck, C. A., A. M. Leroi, and A. Burt. 2011. Mitochondrial capture by a transmissible cancer. Science 331:303.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lever, C., T. Wills, F. Cacucci, N. Burgess, and J. O’Keefe. 2002. Long-term plasticity in hippocampal place-cell representation of environmental geometry. Nature 416:90–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Manuele, F. A. 2007. Advanced Safety Management Focusing on Z10 and Serious Injury Prevention. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Pyne, S., B. L. S. P. Rao, and S. B. Rao (eds). 2016. Big Data Analytics: Methods and Applications. Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Kutnick, P., and P. Blatchford. 2014. Improving the Effectiveness of Collaborative Group Work at KS2: Effects on Pupil Attainment, Classroom Behaviour and Attitudes. Pp. 103–127 in P. Blatchford, ed. Effective Group Work in Primary School Classrooms: The SPRinG Approach. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Evolution.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2016. Chickens Need Color Vision. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Aviation Security: FAA’s Deployments of Equipment to Detect Traces of Explosives. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Racho, M. O. 2012. Attributes of Asian American senior leaders who have retained their cultural identity and been successful in American corporations. Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M. 2017. A Hole in Their Hearts, 5 Years After Hurricane Hit Staten Island.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reedijk 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Clubb and Mason 2003; Reedijk 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clubb and Mason 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Lever et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEvolution
ISSN (print)0014-3820
ISSN (online)1558-5646
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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