How to format your references using the Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. 2004. Thinking big. Nature 428:873.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gatenby, R. A., and P. K. Maini. 2003. Mathematical oncology: cancer summed up. Nature 421:321.
A journal article with 3 authors
Padture, N. P., M. Gell, and E. H. Jordan. 2002. Thermal barrier coatings for gas-turbine engine applications. Science 296:280–284.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chendrimada, T. P., R. I. Gregory, E. Kumaraswamy, J. Norman, N. Cooch, K. Nishikura, and R. Shiekhattar. 2005. TRBP recruits the Dicer complex to Ago2 for microRNA processing and gene silencing. Nature 436:740–744.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Korhonen, J., T. Savolainen, and J. Soininen. 2013. Deploying IPv6 in 3GPP Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Gupta, H. K. (ed). 2011. Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Shakhov, V., and H. Choo. 2008. Denial of Sleeping: Performance Analysis and Counteracting Strategy. Pp. 40–47 in S. Lee, H. Choo, S. Ha, and I. C. Shin, eds. Computer-Human Interaction: 8th Asia-Pacific Conference, APCHI 2008 Seoul, Korea, July 6-9, 2008 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Evolution.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Researchers Reveal Grim Details Of An Early Neolithic Massacre. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Aviation Security: Vulnerabilities in, and Alternatives for, Preboard Screening Security Operations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lim, K. 2017. An Inquiry of How Art Education Policies are Reflected in Art Teacher Preparation: Examining the Standards for Visual Arts and Art Teacher Certification. Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. 2007. Trying to Decipher the Justices on the Current State of the Death Penalty.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Gatenby and Maini 2003; Smaglik 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gatenby and Maini 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Chendrimada et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEvolution
ISSN (print)0014-3820
ISSN (online)1558-5646
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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