How to format your references using the Journal of Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Infection (YJINF). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clayton Julie. Clinical approval: Trials of an anticancer jab. Nature 2012;488(7413):S4-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lloyd Keith, White Jo. Democratizing clinical research. Nature 2011;474(7351):277–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bizzarro Martin, Baker Joel A., Haack Henning. Mg isotope evidence for contemporaneous formation of chondrules and refractory inclusions. Nature 2004;431(7006):275–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Garcia-Perez Jose L., Morell Maria, Scheys Joshua O., Kulpa Deanna A., Morell Santiago, Carter Christoph C., et al. Epigenetic silencing of engineered L1 retrotransposition events in human embryonic carcinoma cells. Nature 2010;466(7307):769–73.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grist Fiona. Basic Guide to Orthodontic Dental Nursing. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Cipolla-Ficarra Francisco, Veltman Kim, Cipolla-Ficarra Miguel, Kratky Andreas, editors. Communicability, Computer Graphics and Innovative Design for Interactive Systems: First International Symposium, CCGIDIS 2011, Córdoba, Spain, June 28-29, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. vol. 7545. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
de Paula Luiz Fernando, Prates Daniela Magalhães. Financial Flows to Emerging Economies and Policy Alternatives Post 2008. In: Gevorkyan Aleksandr V., Canuto Otaviano, editors. Financial Deepening and Post-Crisis Development in Emerging Markets: Current Perils and Future Dawns. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016. pp. 85–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Infection.

Blog post
Davis Josh. According To New Study, A Blood Test Could Predict Suicide Risk. IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School Finance: State and Federal Efforts to Target Poor Students. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Powell Jesse Russell. Ocean fronts in the Southern California Current System and their role in structuring zooplankton distributions, diel vertical migration, and size composition. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly Caitlin. Mormon-Backed Mall Breathes Life Into Salt Lake City. New York Times 2013:B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Infection
AbbreviationJ. Infect.
ISSN (print)0163-4453
ISSN (online)1532-2742
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles