How to format your references using the Journal of Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Infection (YJINF). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balatsky A. V. Superconductivity. From obscurity to impurity. Nature 2000;403(6771):717–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matsuura Yoshiyuki, Stewart Murray. Structural basis for the assembly of a nuclear export complex. Nature 2004;432(7019):872–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weng Jing-Ke, Philippe Ryan N., Noel Joseph P. The rise of chemodiversity in plants. Science 2012;336(6089):1667–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cui Lin, Wang Peijie, Chen Xiaowei, Fang Yurui, Zhang Zhenglong, Sun Mengtao. Plasmon-driven dimerization via S-S chemical bond in an aqueous environment. Sci Rep 2014;4:7221.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rhee Man Young. Wireless Mobile Internet Security. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Martens Uwe M., editor. Small Molecules in Oncology. vol. 184. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Jiménez Antonio R., Seco Fernando, Zampella Francisco, Prieto Jose C., Guevara Jorge. Indoor Localization of Persons in AAL Scenarios Using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and the Signal Strength (SS) from RFID Tags. In: Chessa Stefano, Knauth Stefan, editors. Evaluating AAL Systems Through Competitive Benchmarking: International Competitions and Final Workshop, EvAAL 2012, July and September 2012. Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. pp. 32–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Infection.

Blog post
Andrews Robin. These Four Things Could Cut U.S. Cancer Deaths In Half. IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Significant Risks Remain to Department of Education’s Student Financial Aid Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moose Alida Milligan. The Relationship of Distributed Expertise and Shared Leadership in New Product Development Teams: A Comparative Case Study. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wasik John F. Reverse Mortgages Are Quietly Making a Comeback. New York Times 2016:B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Infection
AbbreviationJ. Infect.
ISSN (print)0163-4453
ISSN (online)1532-2742
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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