How to format your references using the Journal of Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Infection (YJINF). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goodman S. Battle to save beleaguered beluga. Nature 2001;412(6843):108.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roska B., Werblin F. Vertical interactions across ten parallel, stacked representations in the mammalian retina. Nature 2001;410(6828):583–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gridi-Papp M., Rand A. S., Ryan M. J. Animal communication: complex call production in the túngara frog. Nature 2006;441(7089):38.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Polynkin Pavel, Kolesik Miroslav, Moloney Jerome V., Siviloglou Georgios A., Christodoulides Demetrios N. Curved plasma channel generation using ultraintense Airy beams. Science 2009;324(5924):229–32.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kumar Vijay. Mobile Database Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Bassis Simone, Esposito Anna, Morabito Francesco Carlo, editors. Advances in Neural Networks: Computational and Theoretical Issues. vol. 37. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Hong Yanbi. Gender Inequality and Ethnicity. In: Lee John Chi-Kin, Yu Zeyuan, Huang Xianhan, Law Edmond Hau-Fai, editors. Educational Development in Western China: Towards Quality and Equity. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2016. pp. 77–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Infection.

Blog post
Fang Janet. Nasty Fungus Is Imminent Threat to North American Salamanders. IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Review of Certain Activities of the Kentucky Equine Education Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shakya Ranish M. Watershed-Scale Evaluation of Flood Reduction Effect of Low Impact Development Designs. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky Sophia. Yuri Drozdov, 91, Top Spy For K.G.B. Who Planted Agents Around the Globe. New York Times 2017:B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Infection
AbbreviationJ. Infect.
ISSN (print)0163-4453
ISSN (online)1532-2742
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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