How to format your references using the Journal of Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Infection (YJINF). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik Paul. Making the switch. Nature 2004;430(7001):811.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gordon Lyle M., Joester Derk. Nanoscale chemical tomography of buried organic-inorganic interfaces in the chiton tooth. Nature 2011;469(7329):194–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang Mei, Atkinson Ken R., Baughman Ray H. Multifunctional carbon nanotube yarns by downsizing an ancient technology. Science 2004;306(5700):1358–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xu Xiaobao, Huang Dekang, Cao Kun, Wang Mingkui, Zakeeruddin Shaik M., Grätzel Michael. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide multilayer films as efficient counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. Sci Rep 2013;3:1489.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schweiker William. Dust that Breathes. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Staab Steffen, Studer Rudi, editors. Handbook on Ontologies. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Schmid Anne-Françoise. Couturat’s Reception of Leibniz. In: Krömer Ralf, Chin-Drian Yannick, editors. New Essays on Leibniz Reception: In Science and Philosophy of Science 1800-2000. Basel: Springer; 2012. pp. 65–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Infection.

Blog post
Andrew Danielle. GIF Shows Just How Fast New Horizons Is Travelling. IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Improved Planning--A Must Before a Department-Wide Automatic Data Processing System Is Acquired for the Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bodenmiller Joseph J. A quantitative relational analysis of leadership style and leader-accountability in nonprofit organizations. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin John. ‘Game of Thrones’ Spinoffs From HBO. New York Times 2017:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Infection
AbbreviationJ. Infect.
ISSN (print)0163-4453
ISSN (online)1532-2742
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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