How to format your references using the Journal of Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Infection (YJINF). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schulz Emmanuelle. Organic chemistry: One catalyst, two reactions. Nature 2015;517(7534):280–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gandin Valentina, Topisirovic Ivan. Cell biology. Trans-HSF1 express. Science 2013;341(6143):242–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mori Teppei, Vale Ronald D., Tomishige Michio. How kinesin waits between steps. Nature 2007;450(7170):750–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bao Zhongying, Yuan Xiaodong, Duan Shuhong, Dong Xiaoqun. Clinical implication of changes in serum adiponectin in patients with hepatogenic diabetes. Sci Rep 2014;4:5560.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Padova Ted, Murdock Kelly L. Adobe® Creative Suite® 5 Bible. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Wiercigroch Marian, Rega Giuseppe, editors. IUTAM Symposium on Nonlinear Dynamics for Advanced Technologies and Engineering Design: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Nonlinear Dynamics for Advanced Technologies and Engineering Design, held Aberdeen, UK, 27-30 July 2010. vol. 32. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Farnell John, Crookes Paul Irwin. Trade. In: Irwin Crookes Paul, editor. The Politics of EU-China Economic Relations: An Uneasy Partnership. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. pp. 69–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Infection.

Blog post
Evans Katy. You’re Not Lazy, You Have A High IQ, Study Suggests. IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education: Assessing the Relationship between Education and the Workforce. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gullion Darin K. The study of interstate and intrastate mobility effects on student achievement. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Healy Patrick. ‘Brexit’ Revolt Casts a Shadow Over Clinton’s Path of Caution. New York Times 2016:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Infection
AbbreviationJ. Infect.
ISSN (print)0163-4453
ISSN (online)1532-2742
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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