How to format your references using the Journal of Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Infection (YJINF). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reenan Robert A. Molecular determinants and guided evolution of species-specific RNA editing. Nature 2005;434(7031):409–13.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson Christopher G., Sherman Paul W. Anciently asexual bdelloid rotifers escape lethal fungal parasites by drying up and blowing away. Science 2010;327(5965):574–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheng Nanfeng, Bu Xianhui, Feng Pingyun. Synthetic design of crystalline inorganic chalcogenides exhibiting fast-ion conductivity. Nature 2003;426(6965):428–32.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhou Junshuang, Li Na, Gao Faming, Zhao Yufeng, Hou Li, Xu Ziming. Vertically-aligned BCN nanotube arrays with superior performance in electrochemical capacitors. Sci Rep 2014;4:6083.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mishra Ajay R. Cellular Technologies for Emerging Markets. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Liu Nian Cai, Cheng Ying, Wang Qi, editors. Matching Visibility and Performance: A Standing Challenge for World-Class Universities. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Hillmert Steffen. Traditional Inequalities and New Insecurities: Long-Term Trends in the Transition to the Labor Market in Germany. In: Tremmel Joerg, editor. A Young Generation Under Pressure?: The Financial Situation and the “Rush Hour” of the Cohorts 1970–1985 in a Generational Comparison. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. pp. 57–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Infection.

Blog post
Andrew Elise. WHO Approves Use of Unregistered Interventions For Ebola Patients. IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Polar Satellites: NOAA Faces Challenges and Uncertainties that Could Affect the Availability of Critical Weather Data. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peng Edwin. Teaching and Coaching Brazilian Jiujitsu: An Instructional Manual. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse Linda. Justices’ Vote in Death Case Is Close Again, but Differing. New York Times 2007:A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Infection
AbbreviationJ. Infect.
ISSN (print)0163-4453
ISSN (online)1532-2742
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles