How to format your references using the Petroleum Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Petroleum Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hackney, D.D., 2007. Biochemistry. Processive motor movement. Science 316, 58–59.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rieder, C.L., Khodjakov, A., 2003. Mitosis through the microscope: advances in seeing inside live dividing cells. Science 300, 91–96.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin, Y.-J., Jiménez-García, K., Spielman, I.B., 2011. Spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates. Nature 471, 83–86.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ohno, H., Chiba, D., Matsukura, F., Omiya, T., Abe, E., Dietl, T., Ohno, Y., Ohtani, K., 2000. Electric-field control of ferromagnetism. Nature 408, 944–946.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Müller, G., Ponick, B., 2005. Grundlagen elektrischer Maschinen. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Agarwal, A., Aitken, R.J., Alvarez, J.G. (Eds.), 2012. Studies on Men’s Health and Fertility, Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Evans, K.F., Marshak, A., 2005. Numerical Methods, in: Marshak, Alexander, Davis, A. (Eds.), 3D Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres, Physics of Earth and Space Environments. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 243–281.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Petroleum Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Dinosaurs Saw The World In Shades Of Red [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. Seclusions and Restraints: Selected Cases of Death and Abuse at Public and Private Schools and Treatment Centers (No. GAO-09-719T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bennett, J.L., 2013. An examination of therapeutic recreation programs for veterans with combat-related disabilities and their families (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2011. Pond or Rink, Rangers Create Their Own Winter Classic. New York Times B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hackney, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Hackney, 2007; Rieder and Khodjakov, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rieder and Khodjakov, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Ohno et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePetroleum Research
ISSN (print)2096-2495

Other styles