How to format your references using the Petroleum Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Petroleum Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buetow, K.H., 2005. Cyberinfrastructure: empowering a “third way” in biomedical research. Science 308, 821–824.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gale, M., Jr, Foy, E.M., 2005. Evasion of intracellular host defence by hepatitis C virus. Nature 436, 939–945.
A journal article with 3 authors
Levison, H.F., Kretke, K.A., Duncan, M.J., 2015. Growing the gas-giant planets by the gradual accumulation of pebbles. Nature 524, 322–324.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, L., Vysotsky, M.O., Bogdan, A., Bolte, M., Böhmer, V., 2004. Multiple catenanes derived from calix[4]arenes. Science 304, 1312–1314.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 1995. Guidelines for Safe Storage and Handling of Reactive Materials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Leung, C.B., Ruan, J. (Eds.), 2012. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning Chinese Literacy in China, Multilingual Education. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Tolwani, A.J., Palevsky, P.M., 2015. Clinical Pearls: Renal Replacement Therapy for Acute Kidney Injury in the Postoperative Period, in: Thakar, C.V., Parikh, C.R. (Eds.), Perioperative Kidney Injury: Principles of Risk Assessment, Diagnosis and Treatment. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 37–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Petroleum Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. We Could Finally Be Close To Wiping Out HIV From The Body [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. Federal-Aid Highways: Improved Guidance Could Enhance States’ Use of Life-Cycle Cost Analysis in Pavement Selection (No. GAO-13-544). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mednick Takami, L., 2017. Chief Diversity Officers in U.S. Higher Education: Impacting the Campus Climate for Diversity (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J., 2017. A Solution to Subway Delays Caused by Crowding? More Standing Room. New York Times A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buetow, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Buetow, 2005; Gale and Foy, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gale and Foy, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePetroleum Research
ISSN (print)2096-2495

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