How to format your references using the Petroleum Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Petroleum Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lohmueller, K.E., 2014. Evolution. On the origin of Peter Rabbit. Science 345, 1000–1001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Entcheva, E., Williams, J.C., 2014. Channelrhodopsin2 current during the action potential: “optical AP clamp” and approximation. Sci. Rep. 4, 5838.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sánchez, I., Mahlke, C., Yuan, J., 2003. Pivotal role of oligomerization in expanded polyglutamine neurodegenerative disorders. Nature 421, 373–379.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ulloa Ulloa, C., Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Beck, S., Belgrano, M.J., Bernal, R., Berry, P.E., Brako, L., Celis, M., Davidse, G., Forzza, R.C., Gradstein, S.R., Hokche, O., León, B., León-Yánez, S., Magill, R.E., Neill, D.A., Nee, M., Raven, P.H., Stimmel, H., Strong, M.T., Villaseñor, J.L., Zarucchi, J.L., Zuloaga, F.O., Jørgensen, P.M., 2017. An integrated assessment of the vascular plant species of the Americas. Science 358, 1614–1617.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mang, T., Bobzin, K., Bartels, T., 2010. Industrial Tribology. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Dovier, A., Pontelli, E. (Eds.), 2010. A 25-Year Perspective on Logic Programming: Achievements of the Italian Association for Logic Programming, GULP, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Komatineni, S., MacLean, D., 2012. Understanding Content Providers, in: MacLean, D. (Ed.), Pro Android 4. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp. 79–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Petroleum Research.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Expert Committee Finds Genetically Engineered Crops Are As Safe To Eat As Conventionally Bred Plants [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. FAA Financing: Issues and Options in Deciding to Reinstate or Replace the Airline Ticket Tax (No. T-RCED-97-56). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Muehlhauser, C., 2017. Perceived Criticism, Self-Criticism, and Disordered Eating Patterns in College Students (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2008. Bakery That Sells and Gives. New York Times NJ12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lohmueller, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Entcheva and Williams, 2014; Lohmueller, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Entcheva and Williams, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titlePetroleum Research
ISSN (print)2096-2495

Other styles