How to format your references using the Petroleum Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Petroleum Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Asplund, M., 2005. Astronomy. A stellar swan-song. Science 308, 210–211.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, E.-J., Groisman, E.A., 2012. Control of a Salmonella virulence locus by an ATP-sensing leader messenger RNA. Nature 486, 271–275.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, M.G., Park, H.S., Hwang, H.S., 2010. Detection of a large-scale structure of intracluster globular clusters in the Virgo cluster. Science 328, 334–336.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhai, Y., Pierre, D., Si, R., Deng, W., Ferrin, P., Nilekar, A.U., Peng, G., Herron, J.A., Bell, D.C., Saltsburg, H., Mavrikakis, M., Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M., 2010. Alkali-stabilized Pt-OHx species catalyze low-temperature water-gas shift reactions. Science 329, 1633–1636.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perl, J., DeMark, T.R., 2010. DeMark Indicators. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Braunstein, G.D. (Ed.), 2012. Thyroid Cancer, Endocrine Updates. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Badertscher, C., Matt, C., Maurer, U., Rogaway, P., Tackmann, B., 2015. Augmented Secure Channels and the Goal of the TLS 1.3 Record Layer, in: Au, M.-H., Miyaji, A. (Eds.), Provable Security: 9th International Conference, ProvSec 2015, Kanazawa, Japan, November 24-26, 2015, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 85–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Petroleum Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. New Breakthrough In Lithium-Oxygen Battery Technology [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. Maritime Security: DHS Could Benefit from Tracking Progress in Implementing the Small Vessel Security Strategy (No. GAO-14-32). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Howard, A.G., 2009. Large margin transformation learning (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C., 2017. Men Who Know What to Do With Sparkly Eye Shadow. New York Times B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Asplund, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Asplund, 2005; Lee and Groisman, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee and Groisman, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhai et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titlePetroleum Research
ISSN (print)2096-2495

Other styles