How to format your references using the Petroleum Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Petroleum Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
King, A., 2014. Astronomy. Testing the limits of accretion. Science 343, 1318–1319.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weaver, B.A.A., Cleveland, D.W., 2007. Comment on “A centrosome-independent role for gamma-TuRC proteins in the spindle assembly checkpoint.” Science 316, 982; author reply 982.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shenvi, N., Roy, S., Tully, J.C., 2009. Dynamical steering and electronic excitation in NO scattering from a gold surface. Science 326, 829–832.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hakeda-Suzuki, S., Ng, J., Tzu, J., Dietzl, G., Sun, Y., Harms, M., Nardine, T., Luo, L., Dickson, B.J., 2002. Rac function and regulation during Drosophila development. Nature 416, 438–442.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Evtukh, A., Hartnagel, H., Yilmazoglu, O., Mimura, H., Pavlidis, D., 2015. Vacuum Nanoelectronic Devices. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Tavernier, S., Gektin, A., Grinyov, B., Moses, W.W. (Eds.), 2006. Radiation Detectors for Medical Applications, NATO Security through Science Series. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Chow, J.T., 2013. Trade and Human Security in ASEAN: Toward Deeper Linkage?, in: Aggarwal, V.K., Govella, K. (Eds.), Linking Trade and Security: Evolving Institutions and Strategies in Asia, Europe, and the United States, The Political Economy of the Asia Pacific. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 67–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Petroleum Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Black Holes Spotted Eating Stars So Fast, That The Winds Reach One Quarter Of The Speed Of Light [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978. Concurrent Development and Production of MK-12A Reentry Vehicle (No. PSAD-79-2). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, S., 2004. Characterization of Ribosomal S6 Protein Phosphorylation and Posssible Control of Ribosome Biogenesis in Arabidopsis Cell Culture (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J., Smith, M., 2017. Police Shooting Rattles Somalis in Minneapolis. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (King, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (King, 2014; Weaver and Cleveland, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weaver and Cleveland, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Hakeda-Suzuki et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePetroleum Research
ISSN (print)2096-2495

Other styles