How to format your references using the Petroleum Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Petroleum Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kleppner, D., 2006. Physics. A more precise fine structure constant. Science 313, 448–449.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anbar, A.D., Knoll, A.H., 2002. Proterozoic ocean chemistry and evolution: a bioinorganic bridge? Science 297, 1137–1142.
A journal article with 3 authors
Almeda, R., Connelly, T.L., Buskey, E.J., 2014. Novel insight into the role of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in the fate of crude oil in the sea. Sci. Rep. 4, 7560.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Esplugues, E., Huber, S., Gagliani, N., Hauser, A.E., Town, T., Wan, Y.Y., O’Connor, W., Jr, Rongvaux, A., Van Rooijen, N., Haberman, A.M., Iwakura, Y., Kuchroo, V.K., Kolls, J.K., Bluestone, J.A., Herold, K.C., Flavell, R.A., 2011. Control of TH17 cells occurs in the small intestine. Nature 475, 514–518.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Klugman, S.A., Panjer, H.H., Willmot, G.E., 2013. Loss Models: Further Topics, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Reissig, M., Ruzhansky, M. (Eds.), 2013. Progress in Partial Differential Equations: Asymptotic Profiles, Regularity and Well-Posedness, Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics. Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Morita, K., 2016. Policies Towards Tackling Climate Change and Their Compatibility with the WTO, in: Nakanishi, Y. (Ed.), Contemporary Issues in Environmental Law: The EU and Japan, Environmental Protection in the European Union. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp. 63–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Petroleum Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. The Deep Influence Of The A-Bomb On Anime And Manga [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978. Comments on Legislation To Establish a Department of Education (No. B-149737). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Houger, V.P., 2011. Generational differences and the impact to employee engagement: A program design (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Daoud, K., 2017. What Arabs Have Learned From Syria’s War. New York Times SR9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kleppner, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Anbar and Knoll, 2002; Kleppner, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Anbar and Knoll, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Esplugues et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titlePetroleum Research
ISSN (print)2096-2495

Other styles