How to format your references using the Smart Materials and Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Smart Materials and Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gehrels T 2000 Brains, courage and integrity Nature 404 335
A journal article with 2 authors
Umeda H and Nomoto K 2003 First-generation black-hole-forming supernovae and the metal abundance pattern of a very iron-poor star Nature 422 871–3
A journal article with 3 authors
Kagawa F, Miyagawa K and Kanoda K 2005 Unconventional critical behaviour in a quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor Nature 436 534–7
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Zimmerman S C, Wendland M S, Rakow N A, Zharov I and Suslick K S 2002 Synthetic hosts by monomolecular imprinting inside dendrimers Nature 418 399–403

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kroupa V F 2005 Phase Lock Loops and Frequency Synthesis (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Wang X S, Cruz I, Delis A and Huang G 2012 Web Information Systems Engineering - WISE 2012: 13th International Conference, Paphos, Cyprus, November 28-30, 2012. Proceedings vol 7651 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Ambroziak A A 2014 The Legal Framework for Regional State Aid in the European Union in 2014–2020 and Its Impact on the Attractiveness of Poland’s Regions to Investors New Cohesion Policy of the European Union in Poland: How It Will Influence the Investment Attractiveness of Regions in 2014-2020 Contributions to Economics ed A A Ambroziak (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 63–76

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Smart Materials and Structures.

Blog post
Andrew D 2016 Study Sheds Light On Violent Asteroid Crash That Caused Mysterious ‘Crater Rings’ On The Moon IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1977 National Science Foundation’s Actions on Recommendations of GAO Report “Opportunities for Improved Management of the Research Applied to National Needs (RANN) Program” (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gillespie L 2014 Trust in Leadership: Investigation of Andragogical Learning and Implications for Student Placement Outcomes Doctoral dissertation ( St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K 2001 Cheers for the Resurrection Of a Much-Loved Grocery New York Times 146

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSmart Materials and Structures
AbbreviationSmart Mater. Struct.
ISSN (print)0964-1726
ISSN (online)1361-665X
ScopeSignal Processing
Civil and Structural Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles