How to format your references using the Smart Materials and Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Smart Materials and Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jarrold M F 2000 The smallest fullerene Nature 407 26–7
A journal article with 2 authors
Ji H and Zweibel E 2015 Plasma physics. Understanding particle acceleration in astrophysical plasmas Science 347 944–5
A journal article with 3 authors
Román-Leshkov Y, Chheda J N and Dumesic J A 2006 Phase modifiers promote efficient production of hydroxymethylfurfural from fructose Science 312 1933–7
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Graham D W, Lupton J E, Spera F J and Christie D M 2001 Upper-mantle dynamics revealed by helium isotope variations along the southeast Indian ridge Nature 409 701–3

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aasma A, Dutta H and Natarajan P N 2017 An Introductory Course in Summability Theory (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Kaufman H L and Mehnert J M 2016 Melanoma vol 167 (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Wijesinghe L, Siriwardena P and Dias D 2013 A Wireless Sensor Network for Early Warning of Elephant Intrusions Wireless Sensor Networks for Developing Countries: First International Conference, WSN4DC, Jamshoro, Pakistan, April 24-26, 2013, Revised Selected Papers Communications in Computer and Information Science ed F K Shaikh, B S Chowdhry, H M Ammari, M A Uqaili and A Shah (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 38–50

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Smart Materials and Structures.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014 Are You Smarter Than A Crow? IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1980 Areas Needing Improvement in the Adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Senaga K A 2016 Tasteless, cheap, and southern? The rise and decline of the farm-raised catfish industry Doctoral dissertation (Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M 2017 The Storming of Mount Salzburg New York Times AR8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSmart Materials and Structures
AbbreviationSmart Mater. Struct.
ISSN (print)0964-1726
ISSN (online)1361-665X
ScopeSignal Processing
Civil and Structural Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles