How to format your references using the Smart Materials and Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Smart Materials and Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Norman M R 2011 The challenge of unconventional superconductivity Science 332 196–200
A journal article with 2 authors
Spero H J and Lea D W 2002 The cause of carbon isotope minimum events on glacial terminations Science 296 522–5
A journal article with 3 authors
Daviter T, Murphy F V 4th and Ramakrishnan V 2005 Molecular biology. A renewed focus on transfer RNA Science 308 1123–4
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Hessler A M, Lowe D R, Jones R L and Bird D K 2004 A lower limit for atmospheric carbon dioxide levels 3.2 billion years ago Nature 428 736–8

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walkenbach J 2010 John Walkenbach’s Favorite Excel® 2010 Tips & Tricks (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.)
An edited book
Dall B E, Eden S V and Rahl M D 2015 Surgery for the Painful, Dysfunctional Sacroiliac Joint: A Clinical Guide (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Mucherino A, Papajorgji P J and Pardalos P M 2009 Artificial Neural Networks Data Mining in Agriculture Springer Optimization and Its Applications ed P J Papajorgji and P M Pardalos (New York, NY: Springer) pp 107–22

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Smart Materials and Structures.

Blog post
Fang J 2015 Are Animals Getting Smaller and Smaller with Rising Temperatures? IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1991 Railroad Competitiveness: Federal Laws and Policies Affect Railroad Competitiveness (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bigler W H 2010 Increased substance abuse treatment for adolescents Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J 2017 Twilight of a Difficult Man New York Times MB1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSmart Materials and Structures
AbbreviationSmart Mater. Struct.
ISSN (print)0964-1726
ISSN (online)1361-665X
ScopeSignal Processing
Civil and Structural Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles