How to format your references using the Smart Materials and Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Smart Materials and Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thiemens M H 2001 Atmospheric science. The mass-independent ozone isotope effect Science 293 226
A journal article with 2 authors
Eiben A E and Smith J 2015 From evolutionary computation to the evolution of things Nature 521 476–82
A journal article with 3 authors
Zabow G, Dodd S J and Koretsky A P 2015 Shape-changing magnetic assemblies as high-sensitivity NMR-readable nanoprobes Nature 520 73–7
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Brennecka G A, Weyer S, Wadhwa M, Janney P E, Zipfel J and Anbar A D 2010 238U/235U variations in meteorites: extant 247Cm and implications for Pb-Pb dating Science 327 449–51

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cook H F 2017 The Protection and Conservation of Water Resources (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Gelenbe E and Lent R 2013 Computer and Information Sciences III: 27th International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences (London: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Cimmino A, Casali F and Mambretti C 2009 Weird Project: E-Health Service Improvement Using WiMAX Electronic Healthcare: First International Conference, eHealth 2008, London, UK, September 8-9, 2008. Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering ed D Weerasinghe (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 38–49

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Smart Materials and Structures.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014 Frozen Steaks Cook Better Than Thawed Steaks IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2004 Office of Federal Student Aid: Better Strategic and Human Capital Planning Would Help Sustain Management Progress (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McIlwain C J 2017 Defense Institutional Building - Integrating the Work Doctoral dissertation (College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J 2017 Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman New York Times MM22

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSmart Materials and Structures
AbbreviationSmart Mater. Struct.
ISSN (print)0964-1726
ISSN (online)1361-665X
ScopeSignal Processing
Civil and Structural Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles