How to format your references using the Smart Materials and Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Smart Materials and Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bernhard J M 2003 Potential symbionts in bathyal foraminifera Science 299 861
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Shea P G and Freund H P 2001 Free-electron lasers. Status and applications Science 292 1853–8
A journal article with 3 authors
Kurin-Csörgei K, Epstein I R and Orbán M 2005 Systematic design of chemical oscillators using complexation and precipitation equilibria Nature 433 139–42
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Long S P, Ainsworth E A, Leakey A D B, Nösberger J and Ort D R 2006 Food for thought: lower-than-expected crop yield stimulation with rising CO2 concentrations Science 312 1918–21

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quinquis A 2008 Digital Signal Processing using MATLAB® (London, UK: ISTE)
An edited book
Pertijs M A P 2006 PRECISION TEMPERATURE SENSORS IN CMOS TECHNOLOGY ed J H Huijsing (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands)
A chapter in an edited book
Herrera A 2015 Archaeology and Development: Ethics of a Fateful Relationship After Ethics: Ancestral Voices and Post-Disciplinary Worlds in Archaeology ed A Haber and N Shepherd (New York, NY: Springer) pp 39–53

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Smart Materials and Structures.

Blog post
Carpineti A 2016 ESA Beamed Almost 4,000 Messages To The North Star IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2013 Coast Guard: Clarifying the Application of Guidance for Common Operational Picture Development Would Strengthen Program (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Conti M J 2012 The online teaching skills and best practices of virtual classroom teachers: A mixed method Delphi study Doctoral dissertation (Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess B and Goldstein M 2017 Filing Raises Questions for Nominee to the S.E.C New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSmart Materials and Structures
AbbreviationSmart Mater. Struct.
ISSN (print)0964-1726
ISSN (online)1361-665X
ScopeSignal Processing
Civil and Structural Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles