How to format your references using the Smart Materials and Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Smart Materials and Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gossett J M 2002 Environment. Fishing for microbes Science 298 974–5
A journal article with 2 authors
Lister A M and Sher A V 2015 Evolution and dispersal of mammoths across the Northern Hemisphere Science 350 805–9
A journal article with 3 authors
Shin S-B, Golovkin M and Reddy A S N 2014 A pollen-specific calmodulin-binding protein, NPG1, interacts with putative pectate lyases Sci. Rep. 4 5263
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Chuine I, Yiou P, Viovy N, Seguin B, Daux V and Le Roy Ladurie E 2004 Historical phenology: grape ripening as a past climate indicator Nature 432 289–90

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burk F 1997 Lebesgue Measure and Integration (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Ting I-H and Wu H-J 2009 Web Mining Applications in E-commerce and E-services vol 172 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Flacks R and Thomas S L 2007 ‘Outsiders’, Student Subcultures, and the Massification of Higher Education Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research ed J C Smart (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands) pp 181–218

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Smart Materials and Structures.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 Don’t Panic About The Pill – It’s Safer Than Driving To Work IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1986 Rehabilitation Services: Administration of Grants to Human Services Training and Research Council (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hill J A 2012 Classical three-body systems and the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theorem Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K 2003 Lake Placid It Isn’t: Ferries’ Wakes Stir Up a Fuss New York Times 145

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSmart Materials and Structures
AbbreviationSmart Mater. Struct.
ISSN (print)0964-1726
ISSN (online)1361-665X
ScopeSignal Processing
Civil and Structural Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles