How to format your references using the Carbon Resources Conversion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbon Resources Conversion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Heldmaier, Physiology. Life on low flame in hibernation, Science. 331 (2011) 866–867.
A journal article with 2 authors
F. Rohrer, H. Berresheim, Strong correlation between levels of tropospheric hydroxyl radicals and solar ultraviolet radiation, Nature. 442 (2006) 184–187.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Goldblatt, T.M. Lenton, A.J. Watson, Bistability of atmospheric oxygen and the Great Oxidation, Nature. 443 (2006) 683–686.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.F. Prather, S. Peters, S. Nowicki, R. Mooney, Precise auditory-vocal mirroring in neurons for learned vocal communication, Nature. 451 (2008) 305–310.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Chen, Aerothermodynamics of Turbomachinery, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2010.
An edited book
H. Deng, D. Miao, J. Lei, F.L. Wang, eds., Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence: Third International Conference, AICI 2011, Taiyuan, China, September 24-25, 2011, Proceedings, Part II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Singh Saharan, N. Mehta, P.D. Meena, Infection Process, Pathogenesis and Disease Cycle, in: N. Mehta, P.D. Meena (Eds.), Alternaria Diseases of Crucifers: Biology, Ecology and Disease Management, Springer, Singapore, 2016: pp. 87–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbon Resources Conversion.

Blog post
D. Andrew, How Much Would It Cost To Be Batman?, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Developing a Domestic Common Carrier Telecommunications Policy: What Are the Issues?, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.T. Bernstine, Experiences of Students Transferring from Community and Technical Colleges to a Private Nonprofit University, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D. Barboza, Chinese Giant Rose on a Web Of Family Ties, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbon Resources Conversion
ISSN (print)2588-9133

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