How to format your references using the Carbon Resources Conversion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbon Resources Conversion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.D. Lee, Engineering. Can technology get your eyes back on the road?, Science. 324 (2009) 344–346.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Shen, L.C. Ho, The diversity of quasars unified by accretion and orientation, Nature. 513 (2014) 210–213.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Bejan, S. Ziaei, S. Lorente, Evolution: why all plumes and jets evolve to round cross sections, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4730.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Yarrow, P. Haggard, R. Heal, P. Brown, J.C. Rothwell, Illusory perceptions of space and time preserve cross-saccadic perceptual continuity, Nature. 414 (2001) 302–305.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Crane, Knowledge and Discourse Matters, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
B. Lamiroy, J.-M. Ogier, eds., Graphics Recognition. Current Trends and Challenges: 10th International Workshop, GREC 2013, Bethlehem, PA, USA, August 20-21, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Croft, Creative Use of PNG Transparency in Web Design, in: M. Boulton, A. Clarke, S. Collison, J. Croft, D. Featherstone, I. Lloyd, E. Marcotte, D. Rubin, R. Weychert (Eds.), Web Standards Creativity: Innovations in Web Design with XHTML, CSS, and DOM Scripting, Apress, Berkeley, CA, 2007: pp. 108–128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbon Resources Conversion.

Blog post
J. Fang, Vast Diversity Found in Genetics of Mexico, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Study of United States Government Wind Tunnels, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1954.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Mehmeti, Intensive dramaturgical research facilitated the creation of the character Soran Saleen in “The Poetry of Pizza,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. St. John Kelly, Media Talk; Dialing Sister Souljah at WLIB, New York Times. (1998) D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbon Resources Conversion
ISSN (print)2588-9133

Other styles