How to format your references using the Carbon Resources Conversion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbon Resources Conversion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.H.A. Plasterk, RNA silencing: the genome’s immune system, Science. 296 (2002) 1263–1265.
A journal article with 2 authors
P.-C. Chen, Z.-K. Xu, Mineral-coated polymer membranes with superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity for effective oil/water separation, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2776.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Aida, E.W. Meijer, S.I. Stupp, Functional supramolecular polymers, Science. 335 (2012) 813–817.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Tanaka, N. Mukae, H. Dewar, M. van Breugel, E.K. James, A.R. Prescott, C. Antony, T.U. Tanaka, Molecular mechanisms of kinetochore capture by spindle microtubules, Nature. 434 (2005) 987–994.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.J. Lewis Sr., Hazardous Chemicals Desk Reference, Sixth Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2008.
An edited book
J. Barjis, T. Eldabi, A. Gupta, eds., Enterprise and Organizational Modeling and Simulation: 7th International Workshop, EOMAS 2011, held at CAiSE 2011, London, UK, June 20-21, 2011. Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Pulido, D. McCreary, I. Cañellas, M. McClaran, T. Plieninger, Oak Regeneration: Ecological Dynamics and Restoration Techniques, in: P. Campos, L. Huntsinger, J.L. Oviedo Pro, P.F. Starrs, M. Diaz, R.B. Standiford, G. Montero (Eds.), Mediterranean Oak Woodland Working Landscapes: Dehesas of Spain and Ranchlands of California, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013: pp. 123–144.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbon Resources Conversion.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Herbal Supplements Don’t Contain What They Claim, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Proposed Procedure for Access by GAO to Records of Students in the Murphy School District, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Rodriguez, Numerical Simulation of a Flowfield Around a Hypersonic Missile with Lateral Jets, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Kelly, For the Self-Employed, a Year-Round System Will Smooth Tax Time, New York Times. (2008) C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbon Resources Conversion
ISSN (print)2588-9133

Other styles