How to format your references using the Smart Learning Environments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Smart Learning Environments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N. Dauphas, Nature 435, 1203 (2005).
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Ray-Gallet and G. Almouzni, Science 328, 56 (2010).
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Husale, H. H. J. Persson, and O. Sahin, Nature 462, 1075 (2009).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. A. Nguyen, J.-U. Lee, D. Yoon, and H. Cheong, Sci. Rep. 4, 4630 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. A. Veasey, L. C. McCormick, B. M. Hilyer, K. W. Oldfield, S. Hansen, and T. H. Krayer, Confined Space Entry and Emergency Response (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005).
An edited book
P. Bhola and A. Raguram, editors , Ethical Issues in Counselling and Psychotherapy Practice: Walking the Line (Springer, Singapore, 2016).
A chapter in an edited book
C. S. Hardin and A. D. Taylor, in The Mathematics of Coordinated Inference: A Study of Generalized Hat Problems, edited by A. D. Taylor (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2013), pp. 29–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Smart Learning Environments.

Blog post
T. Hale, IFLScience (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, ADP Contracts: Army Needs to Correct Budget Disclosure Deficiencies (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1989).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G.-Y. Pee, Sonochemical Remediation of Freshwater Sediments Contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, New York Times B9 (1992).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dauphas 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Dauphas 2005; Ray-Gallet and Almouzni 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ray-Gallet and Almouzni 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Nguyen et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmart Learning Environments
AbbreviationSmart Learn. Environ.
ISSN (online)2196-7091

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