How to format your references using the Lung citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lung. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bindschadler R (2006) Climate change. Hitting the ice sheets where it hurts. Science 311:1720–1721
A journal article with 2 authors
Nishioka K, Reinberg D (2001) Transcription. Switching partners in a regulatory tango. Science 294:2497–2498
A journal article with 3 authors
Shcherbina AY, Talley LD, Rudnick DL (2003) Direct observations of North Pacific ventilation: brine rejection in the Okhotsk Sea. Science 302:1952–1955
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bini M, Ferrari S, Ferrara C, et al (2013) Polymorphism and magnetic properties of Li2MSiO4 (M = Fe, Mn) cathode materials. Sci Rep 3:3452

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cleaver H, Cawson P, Gorin S, Walker S (2009) Safeguarding Children. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Im S (2013) Photo-Excited Charge Collection Spectroscopy: Probing the traps in field-effect transistors. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Carbó-Valverde S, Cuadros-Solas PJ, Rodríguez-Fernández F (2016) The Reputable Underwriting Matching in Corporate Bond Issuances: Evidence for Non-financial Bonds. In: Carbó Valverde S, Cuadros Solas PJ, Rodríguez Fernández F (eds) Bank Funding, Financial Instruments and Decision-Making in the Banking Industry. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 95–115

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lung.

Blog post
Andrew D (2017) DNA Reveals Aboriginal People Had A Long And Settled Connection To Country. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) FAA Technical Center: Mission and Role in National Airspace System Plan Implementation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pepper I (2010) On the Difference between Serialism and Seriality. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2012) Olympic Dream Vacations, Minus Tickets. New York Times B15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLung
ISSN (print)0341-2040
ISSN (online)1432-1750
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles