How to format your references using the Lung citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lung. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Margolis HS (2013) Physics. How big is the proton? Science 339:405–406
A journal article with 2 authors
Romanowicz B, Gung Y (2002) Superplumes from the core-mantle boundary to the lithosphere: implications for heat flux. Science 296:513–516
A journal article with 3 authors
Ehebauer M, Hayward P, Arias AM (2006) Notch, a universal arbiter of cell fate decisions. Science 314:1414–1415
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Li W, Pohl T, Rost JM, et al (2011) A homonuclear molecule with a permanent electric dipole moment. Science 334:1110–1114

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davison M (2011) Pharmaceutical Anti-Counterfeiting. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Brown KA (2014) Obesity and Breast Cancer: The Role of Dysregulated Estrogen Metabolism. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Moiseeva O, Ferbeyre G (2014) Oncogene-Induced Senescence: Role of Mitochondrial Dysfunction. In: Hayat MA (ed) Tumor Dormancy, Quiescence, and Senescence, Volume 2: Aging, Cancer, and Noncancer Pathologies. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 45–52

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lung.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) New Breakthrough In Lithium-Oxygen Battery Technology. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Next Generation Air Transportation System: FAA Faces Implementation Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kelleher A (2017) Gendered Intent to Turnover Resulting from Workplace Bullying in Nursing and Medical Fields. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rashbaum WK, Craig S, Kaplan T (2015) Inquiry Is Said to Aim at Chief of State Senate. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLung
ISSN (print)0341-2040
ISSN (online)1432-1750
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles