How to format your references using the Lung citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lung. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Clark JM (2006) Paleontology. A different kind of croc. Science 311:43–44
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Hezel DC, Russell SS (2008) Comment on “ancient asteroids enriched in refractory inclusions.” Science 322:1050; author reply 1050
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Vandermeer J, Perfecto I, Philpott SM (2008) Clusters of ant colonies and robust criticality in a tropical agroecosystem. Nature 451:457–459
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Mazloumian A, Helbing D, Lozano S, et al (2013) Global multi-level analysis of the “scientific food web.” Sci Rep 3:1167

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Hartmann AK, Weigt M (2005) Phase Transitions in Combinatorial Optimization Problems. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG
An edited book
1.
N. Makarov S (2016) Practical Electrical Engineering, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Aebischer B, Hilty LM (2015) The Energy Demand of ICT: A Historical Perspective and Current Methodological Challenges. In: Hilty LM, Aebischer B (eds) ICT Innovations for Sustainability. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 71–103

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lung.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S (2014) NASA Plans To Send People To Mars By 2035. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/space/nasa-plans-send-people-mars-2035/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2014) The Air Force’s Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle Competitive Procurement. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Rivera A (2010) A post analysis of an advanced access appointment model. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Greenhouse L (2007) On the Wrong Side of 5 to 4, Liberals Talk Tactics. New York Times WK3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLung
AbbreviationLung
ISSN (print)0341-2040
ISSN (online)1432-1750
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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