How to format your references using the Lung citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lung. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Ruvkun G (2001) Molecular biology. Glimpses of a tiny RNA world. Science 294:797–799
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Gratzer W, Nathan DG (2005) Obituary: Fred S. Rosen (1930-2005). Nature 435:1044
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Bloss TA, Witze ES, Rothman JH (2003) Suppression of CED-3-independent apoptosis by mitochondrial betaNAC in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 424:1066–1071
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Wang D, Garcia-Bassets I, Benner C, et al (2011) Reprogramming transcription by distinct classes of enhancers functionally defined by eRNA. Nature 474:390–394

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
The Family Firm Institute, Inc. (2013) Family Enterprise. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Atwater MM, Russell M, Butler MB (2014) Multicultural Science Education: Preparing Teachers for Equity and Social Justice. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Kristiansen E, Pries-Heje J, Baskerville RL (2014) Designing Scientific Creativity. In: Commisso TH, Nørbjerg J, Pries-Heje J (eds) Nordic Contributions in IS Research: 5th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, SCIS 2014, Ringsted, Denmark, August 10-13, 2014. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 44–57

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lung.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E (2014) 3D Printer Makes Prosthetic Foot For Duck. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/3d-printer-makes-prosthetic-foot-duck/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1978) Crop Forecasting by Satellite: Progress and Problems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Reller TL (2010) Exploring differences in teacher attitudes and instructional strategies between traditional and block schedule high schools: A comparison of two small schools. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Brantley B (2017) Activists Haunted by Their K.G.B. Ordeal. New York Times C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLung
AbbreviationLung
ISSN (print)0341-2040
ISSN (online)1432-1750
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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