How to format your references using the Ethical Theory and Moral Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sohl F (2010) Planetary science. Revealing Titan’s interior. Science 327:1338–1339
A journal article with 2 authors
Hitz M-P, Andelfinger G (2015) Cardiology: Race for healthy hearts. Nature 520:160–161
A journal article with 3 authors
Wookey J, Kendall J-M, Barruol G (2002) Mid-mantle deformation inferred from seismic anisotropy. Nature 415:777–780
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nikolaev A, McLaughlin T, O’Leary DDM, Tessier-Lavigne M (2009) APP binds DR6 to trigger axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases. Nature 457:981–989

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quinlan J, VanderBrug J (2016) Gender Lens Investing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Mitsikostas DD, Paemeleire K (eds) (2016) Pharmacological Management of Headaches. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Sobotka PA, Harrison DG, Fudim M (2015) The Endpoint on Measuring the Clinical Effects of Renal Denervation: What Are the Best Surrogates. In: Heuser RR, Schlaich M, Sievert H (eds) Renal Denervation: A New Approach to Treatment of Resistant Hypertension. Springer, London, pp 25–43

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethical Theory and Moral Practice.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Fat And Sugar-Heavy Diet Harms Your Brain – And Makes You Keep On Eating. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Student Loans: Default Rates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shimpeno PD (2010) Consumed: Simple Choices, Complex Problems. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2009) A Tea ‘Room,’ on 2 Floors. New York Times NJ12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sohl 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Sohl 2010; Hitz and Andelfinger 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hitz and Andelfinger 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Nikolaev et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthical Theory and Moral Practice
AbbreviationEthical Theory Moral Pract.
ISSN (print)1386-2820
ISSN (online)1572-8447
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

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