How to format your references using the Clinical Pharmacokinetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Pharmacokinetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Boss AP. Star formation. Three’s a crowd. Nature. 2000;405:405, 407.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Parkes DC, Wellman MP. Economic reasoning and artificial intelligence. Science. 2015;349:267–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Berg RW, Alaburda A, Hounsgaard J. Balanced inhibition and excitation drive spike activity in spinal half-centers. Science. 2007;315:390–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. McElreath R, Luttbeg B, Fogarty SP, Brodin T, Sih A. Evolution of animal personalities. Nature. 2007;450:E5; discussion E5-6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Fraser J, Simkins BJ. Enterprise Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Terlaky T, Curtis FE, editors. Modeling and Optimization: Theory and Applications: Selected Contributions from the MOPTA 2010 Conference. New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Skeen J. Predator–Prey Relationships: What Humans Can Learn from Horses about Being Whole. In: Blazina C, Boyraz G, Shen-Miller D, editors. The Psychology of the Human-Animal Bond: A Resource for Clinicians and Researchers. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. p. 81–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Pharmacokinetics.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. Drone’s Death Mission Provides Stunning Footage Of Volcano [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Review of Claims Settlement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Sep. Report No.: B-179146.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Yaudes KL. Change Your Category, Change Your Mind: The Mutability of Folk Models of Mental Health Disorders [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Crow K. On a Site of Terror and Death, Survivors Find a Role. New York Times. 2001 May 2;H6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Pharmacokinetics
AbbreviationClin. Pharmacokinet.
ISSN (print)0312-5963
ISSN (online)1179-1926
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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