How to format your references using the Small Business Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Small Business Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McMullen, K. (2005). Experimental physics, experimental art. Nature, 434(7031), 310–311.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weber, W. J., & Ewing, R. C. (2000). Plutonium immobilization and radiation effects. Science (New York, N.Y.), 289(5487), 2051–2052.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dahl, C. D., Chen, C.-C., & Rasch, M. J. (2014). Own-race and own-species advantages in face perception: a computational view. Scientific reports, 4, 6654.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tsutsui, M., Morikawa, T., Arima, A., & Taniguchi, M. (2013). Thermoelectricity in atom-sized junctions at room temperatures. Scientific reports, 3, 3326.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Featherstone, H., & Holt, E. (2011). Small Animal Ophthalmology. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Chen, M., Leibe, B., & Neumann, B. (Eds.). (2013). Computer Vision Systems: 9th International Conference, ICVS 2013, St. Petersburg, Russia, July 16-18, 2013. Proceedings (Vol. 7963). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cheng, L. P. (2015). Developing Critical Reflection Through Audio and Video Technology for Some Singapore Primary School Mathematics Teachers. In S. F. Ng (Ed.), Cases of Mathematics Professional Development in East Asian Countries: Using Video to Support Grounded Analysis (pp. 39–60). Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Small Business Economics.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2017, April 4). 8 Diet Myths – Busted! IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Millennium Challenge Corporation: Results of Transportation Infrastructure Projects in Seven Countries (No. GAO-12-631). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barnard, S. (2015). Police officers’ attitudes about rape victims (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, May 15). Collins, Nearing a Mets Milestone, Is Still Enjoying the Journey. New York Times, p. D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McMullen 2005).
This sentence cites two references (McMullen 2005; Weber and Ewing 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weber and Ewing 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Tsutsui et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmall Business Economics
AbbreviationSmall Bus. Econ.
ISSN (print)0921-898X
ISSN (online)1573-0913
ScopeGeneral Business, Management and Accounting
Economics and Econometrics

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