How to format your references using the Small Business Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Small Business Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yin, Q.-Z. (2004). Planetary science. Predicting the Sun’s oxygen isotope composition. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5691), 1729–1730.
A journal article with 2 authors
Temeles, E. J., & Kress, W. J. (2003). Adaptation in a plant-hummingbird association. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5619), 630–633.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rignot, E., Mouginot, J., & Scheuchl, B. (2011). Ice flow of the Antarctic ice sheet. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6048), 1427–1430.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Marescaux, J., Leroy, J., Gagner, M., Rubino, F., Mutter, D., Vix, M., et al. (2001). Transatlantic robot-assisted telesurgery. Nature, 413(6854), 379–380.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Binnie, C. (2016). Linux Server Security. Indianapolis, IN, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Haan, L. de. (2007). Applied Mathematics for Database Professionals. (T. Koppelaars, Ed.). Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Agostini, P., Suter, G. W., Gottardo, S., & Giubilato, E. (2009). Indicators and Endpoints for Risk-Based Decision Processes with Decision Support Systems. In A. Marcomini, G. W. Suter II, & A. Critto (Eds.), Decision Support Systems for Risk-Based Management of Contaminated Sites (pp. 1–18). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Small Business Economics.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, June 29). Where Have All Earth’s Impact Craters Gone? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Personnel Security: Pass and Security Clearance Data for the Executive Office of the President (No. NSIAD-96-20). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, D. (2009). Deus-ex-machina: A modern skeptic’s relentless scrutiny of the production of ethics in post-colonial literature and postcolonialism (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, September 20). For Matz, and Mets, Another Comeback Has Proved Difficult to Fulfill. New York Times, p. B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yin 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Temeles and Kress 2003; Yin 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Temeles and Kress 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Marescaux et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmall Business Economics
AbbreviationSmall Bus. Econ.
ISSN (print)0921-898X
ISSN (online)1573-0913
ScopeGeneral Business, Management and Accounting
Economics and Econometrics

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