How to format your references using the Small Business Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Small Business Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dennis, C. (2002). Baiting plan to remove fox threat to Tasmanian wildlife. Nature, 416(6879), 357.
A journal article with 2 authors
Que, L., Jr, & Tolman, W. B. (2008). Biologically inspired oxidation catalysis. Nature, 455(7211), 333–340.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jin, Z., Li, P., & Xiao, D. (2014). Enhanced electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction via active interfaces of layer-by-layered titanium nitride/titanium carbonitride structures. Scientific reports, 4, 6712.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bhargava, V., Ko, P., Willems, E., Mercola, M., & Subramaniam, S. (2013). Quantitative transcriptomics using designed primer-based amplification. Scientific reports, 3, 1740.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rigo, M. (2014). Formal Languages, Automata and Numeration Systems 1. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tao, A., & Raz, E. (Eds.). (2015). Allergy Bioinformatics (Vol. 8). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Xu, H., Buck, S. M., Kopelman, R., Philbert, M. A., Brasuel, M., Monson, E., et al. (2005). Fluorescent Pebble Nano-Sensors and Nanoexplorers for Real-Time Intracellular and Biomedical Applications. In C. D. Geddes & J. R. Lakowicz (Eds.), Advanced Concepts in Fluorescence Sensing: Part B: Macromolecular Sensing (pp. 69–126). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Small Business Economics.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, October 3). The Global Trade Of Wild African Grey Parrots Has Been Banned. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). ADP Budget: SSA’s Fiscal Year 1990 Information Technology Systems Budget Request (No. IMTEC-89-60). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crider, M. C. (2012). The social and environmental effects of shrimp mariculture: Case studies of two coastal villages in Ecuador (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. (2016, January 3). A Handmade Sea of Sparkling Glass. New York Times, p. WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dennis 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Dennis 2002; Que and Tolman 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Que and Tolman 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Bhargava et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmall Business Economics
AbbreviationSmall Bus. Econ.
ISSN (print)0921-898X
ISSN (online)1573-0913
ScopeGeneral Business, Management and Accounting
Economics and Econometrics

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