How to format your references using the Small Business Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Small Business Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Douglas, T. (2003). Materials science. A bright bio-inspired future. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5610), 1192–1193.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cossart, P., & Sansonetti, P. J. (2004). Bacterial invasion: the paradigms of enteroinvasive pathogens. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5668), 242–248.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tilmes, S., Müller, R., & Salawitch, R. (2008). The sensitivity of polar ozone depletion to proposed geoengineering schemes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5880), 1201–1204.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Duan, X., Huang, Y., Cui, Y., Wang, J., & Lieber, C. M. (2001). Indium phosphide nanowires as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. Nature, 409(6816), 66–69.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Courant, R., & McShane, E. J. (1988). Differential and Integral Calculus. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sáez, M. (Ed.). (2015). Same Sex Couples - Comparative Insights on Marriage and Cohabitation (Vol. 42). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Sovacool, B. K., & Linnér, B.-O. (2016). The Perils of Climate Diplomacy: The Political Economy of the UNFCCC. In B.-O. Linnér (Ed.), The Political Economy of Climate Change Adaptation (pp. 110–135). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Small Business Economics.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017, February 2). Pores On The “Platypus Of Microbiology” May Reveal How Complex Life Evolved. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). GAO Reviews of USDA Biotechnology Research Efforts and Regulatory Programs and Activities (No. 129809). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shakya, S. (2013). Characterization of Interaction of Calmodulin and its Chimeras with Orai1 (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D., Cooper, H., & Schmitt, E. (2017, June 27). Trump Warns Assad After Reports of Possible Gas Preparations. New York Times, p. A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Douglas 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Cossart and Sansonetti 2004; Douglas 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cossart and Sansonetti 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Duan et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmall Business Economics
AbbreviationSmall Bus. Econ.
ISSN (print)0921-898X
ISSN (online)1573-0913
ScopeGeneral Business, Management and Accounting
Economics and Econometrics

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