How to format your references using the Small Business Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Small Business Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lok, C. (2001). Plans to reduce acceptable arsenic limit put on hold. Nature, 410(6828), 503.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kanan, M. W., & Nocera, D. G. (2008). In situ formation of an oxygen-evolving catalyst in neutral water containing phosphate and Co2+. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5892), 1072–1075.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dicke, M., van Loon, J. J. A., & de Jong, P. W. (2004). Ecology. Ecogenomics benefits community ecology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5684), 618–619.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bautista, D. M., Siemens, J., Glazer, J. M., Tsuruda, P. R., Basbaum, A. I., Stucky, C. L., et al. (2007). The menthol receptor TRPM8 is the principal detector of environmental cold. Nature, 448(7150), 204–208.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Popkin, J. D. (2011). A Concise History of the Haitian Revolution. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
O’Brien, H., & Cairns, P. (Eds.). (2016). Why Engagement Matters: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives of User Engagement in Digital Media. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hunter, S. M., McCart Reed, A. E., Campbell, I. G., & Gorringe, K. L. (2016). Genomic Analysis. In S. R. Lakhani & S. B. Fox (Eds.), Molecular Pathology in Cancer Research (pp. 83–106). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Small Business Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, June 19). Researchers Use Genetic Switch To Reverse Leukemia In Mice. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Commercial Use of Space: Many Grantees Making Progress, but NASA Oversight Could Be Improved (No. NSIAD-91-142). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huffer, D. J. (2013). A spatial analysis and zooarchaeological interpretation of archaeological bison remains in the Southwest and the wildlife management implications for the House Rock Valley bison herd in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2009, December 20). Even the Reliable Must Face the Inevitable. New York Times, p. SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lok 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Kanan and Nocera 2008; Lok 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kanan and Nocera 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Bautista et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmall Business Economics
AbbreviationSmall Bus. Econ.
ISSN (print)0921-898X
ISSN (online)1573-0913
ScopeGeneral Business, Management and Accounting
Economics and Econometrics

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