How to format your references using the Frontiers in Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Janka H-T. Astronomy. The secrets behind supernovae. Science (2002) 297:1134–1135.
A journal article with 2 authors
Houghton M, Abrignani S. Prospects for a vaccine against the hepatitis C virus. Nature (2005) 436:961–966.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lappe M, Awater H, Krekelberg B. Postsaccadic visual references generate presaccadic compression of space. Nature (2000) 403:892–895.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Walter KM, Zimov SA, Chanton JP, Verbyla D, Chapin FS 3rd. Methane bubbling from Siberian thaw lakes as a positive feedback to climate warming. Nature (2006) 443:71–75.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yan W. Crop Variety Trials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2014).
An edited book
Hall S, Nazarov AN, Lysenko VS eds. Nanoscaled Semiconductor-on-Insulator Structures and Devices. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands (2007).
A chapter in an edited book
Greiner K. “Psychotherapia Academica Universitatis: A Philosophical Argument for the Academic Discipline of Psychotherapy,” in Psychotherapy Research: Foundations, Process, and Outcome, eds. O. C. G. Gelo, A. Pritz, B. Rieken (Vienna: Springer), 93–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Surgery.

Blog post
Hale T. You Can Now Search Through 12 Million Pages Of Declassified CIA Files Online. IFLScience (2017)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Test and Evaluation: DOD’s Fiscal Year 1989 Test Resource Budget. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1990).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown JT. Evaluation of a social science simulation by uncertainty analysis and comparison. (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Puerto Rico Officials to Testify on Debt Crisis Before Senate Panel. New York Times (2015)B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Surgery
AbbreviationFront. Surg.
ISSN (online)2296-875X

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