How to format your references using the Frontiers in Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Webb S. Science careers. Covering the planet with solar panels. Science (2007) 315:869.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roth S, Panfilio KA. Development. Making waves for segments. Science (2012) 336:306–307.
A journal article with 3 authors
Webber BL, Le Maitre DC, Kriticos DJ. Comment on “Climatic niche shifts are rare among terrestrial plant invaders.” Science (2012) 338:193; author reply 193.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Fernandes-Alnemri T, Yu J-W, Datta P, Wu J, Alnemri ES. AIM2 activates the inflammasome and cell death in response to cytoplasmic DNA. Nature (2009) 458:509–513.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eidhammer I, Barsnes H, Eide GE, Martens L. Computational and Statistical Methods for Protein Quantification by Mass Spectrometry. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd (2013).
An edited book
Garro A ed. Early Childhood Assessment in School and Clinical Child Psychology. New York, NY: Springer (2016).
A chapter in an edited book
Xu F, Lu T. “Skin Mechanical Behaviour,” in Introduction to Skin Biothermomechanics and Thermal Pain, ed. T. Lu (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 87–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Surgery.

Blog post
Luntz S. Scientists Work Out How To Make Matter From Light. IFLScience (2014) Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Aid And Postsecondary Tax Preferences: Limited Research Exists on Effectiveness of Tools to Assist Students and Families through Title IV Student Aid and Tax Preferences. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (2005).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horaist DW. Estimating Seed Bank Responses to Changing Environmental Conditions in the Louisiana Coastal Zone. (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dudziak ML. Trump and America’s Promise. New York Times (2016)A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Surgery
AbbreviationFront. Surg.
ISSN (online)2296-875X

Other styles