How to format your references using the The Psychological Record citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Psychological Record. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball, P. (2013). DNA: Celebrate the unknowns. Nature, 496(7446), 419–420.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sattler, A., & Parkin, G. (2010). Cleaving carbon-carbon bonds by inserting tungsten into unstrained aromatic rings. Nature, 463(7280), 523–526.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pham, T. C. T., Kim, H. S., & Yoon, K. B. (2011). Growth of uniformly oriented silica MFI and BEA zeolite films on substrates. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6062), 1533–1538.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chen, L., Zhu, Y., Yang, D., Zou, R., Wu, J., & Tian, H. (2014). Synthesis and antibacterial activities of antibacterial peptides with a spiropyran fluorescence probe. Scientific reports, 4, 6860.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lalanne, C. (2014). Fatigue Damage. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Homedes, N., & Ugalde, A. (Eds.). (2014). Clinical Trials in Latin America: Where Ethics and Business Clash (Vol. 2). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Masala, C. (2013). Political Environment as a Factor of Risk. In M. Essig, M. Hülsmann, E.-M. Kern, & S. Klein-Schmeink (Eds.), Supply Chain Safety Management: Security and Robustness in Logistics (pp. 101–108). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Psychological Record.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, October 22). Astronomers Asked To Observe “Alien Megastructure Star” In More Detail. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Domestic Aviation: Service Problems and Limited Competition Continue in Some Markets (No. T-RCED-98-176). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goodison, S. E. (2014). The undiscovered country: Homicide, dynamic change, and deterrence in Washington, D.C. Neighborhoods, 1998-2006 (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2013, June 6). The Gossip Just Won’t Stop. New York Times, p. E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ball 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Ball 2013; Sattler and Parkin 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sattler and Parkin 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Psychological Record
AbbreviationPsychol. Rec.
ISSN (print)0033-2933
ISSN (online)2163-3452
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Psychology

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