How to format your references using the The Psychological Record citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Psychological Record. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sunda, W. G. (2010). Oceans. Iron and the carbon pump. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5966), 654–655.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lynd, L. R., & Woods, J. (2011). Perspective: A new hope for Africa. Nature, 474(7352), S20-1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ruthazer, E. S., Akerman, C. J., & Cline, H. T. (2003). Control of axon branch dynamics by correlated activity in vivo. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5629), 66–70.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Leishman, A. J., Naidenko, O. V., Attinger, A., Koning, F., Lena, C. J., Xiong, Y., et al. (2001). T cell responses modulated through interaction between CD8alphaalpha and the nonclassical MHC class I molecule, TL. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5548), 1936–1939.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ryan, F. (2013). Cognitive Therapy for Addiction. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Crandall, K. A., & Lagergren, J. (Eds.). (2008). Algorithms in Bioinformatics: 8th International Workshop, WABI 2008, Karlsruhe, Germany, September 15-19, 2008. Proceedings (Vol. 5251). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Boutellier, R., & Heinzen, M. (2014). Diffusion of New Technologies. In M. Heinzen (Ed.), Growth Through Innovation: Managing the Technology-Driven Enterprise (pp. 59–70). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Psychological Record.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, October 10). The Public Must Speak Up About Gene Editing – Beyond Embryo Modification. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Pipeline Security: TSA Has Taken Actions to Help Strengthen Security, but Could Improve Priority-Setting and Assessment Processes (No. GAO-10-867). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bunt, E. (2010). The saxophone works of Karlheinz Stockhausen (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR, N. (2017, July 29). Russia’s Villages, and Their Culture, Are ‘Melting Away.’ New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sunda 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Lynd and Woods 2011; Sunda 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lynd and Woods 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Leishman et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Psychological Record
AbbreviationPsychol. Rec.
ISSN (print)0033-2933
ISSN (online)2163-3452
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Psychology

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