How to format your references using the The Psychological Record citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Psychological Record. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brophy, P. J. (2002). Microbiology. Subversion of Schwann cells and the leper’s bell. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5569), 862–863.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sieweke, M. H., & Allen, J. E. (2013). Beyond stem cells: self-renewal of differentiated macrophages. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6161), 1242974.
A journal article with 3 authors
Elsaesser, H., Sauer, K., & Brooks, D. G. (2009). IL-21 is required to control chronic viral infection. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5934), 1569–1572.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hatta, M., Gao, P., Halfmann, P., & Kawaoka, Y. (2001). Molecular basis for high virulence of Hong Kong H5N1 influenza A viruses. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5536), 1840–1842.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tsui, J. B.-Y. (2004). Fundamentals of Global Positioning System Receivers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tangpricha, V. (Ed.). (2016). Vitamin D: A Clinical Casebook (1st ed. 2016.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sobecki, J., & Żatuchin, D. (2009). Knowledge and Data Processing in a Process of Website Quality Evaluation. In N. T. Nguyen, R. P. Katarzyniak, & A. Janiak (Eds.), New Challenges in Computational Collective Intelligence (pp. 51–61). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Psychological Record.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, September 26). The Dark Winter Months Of The Arctic Found To Be A Hive Of Activity. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). The Basic Educational Opportunity Grant Program at Holliston Junior College (No. HRD-77-45). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bilbrey, J. (2017). The Positive Effects Extrinsic Motivation Can Have on Intrinsic Motivation in a Math Classroom (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2016, August 26). An Industry Fractured. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brophy 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Brophy 2002; Sieweke and Allen 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sieweke and Allen 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Hatta et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Psychological Record
AbbreviationPsychol. Rec.
ISSN (print)0033-2933
ISSN (online)2163-3452
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Psychology

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