How to format your references using the The Psychological Record citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Psychological Record. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holden, C. (2000). MIDDLE SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT: Asia Stays on Top, U.S. in Middle in New Global Rankings. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5498), 1866.
A journal article with 2 authors
Corma, A., & Serna, P. (2006). Chemoselective hydrogenation of nitro compounds with supported gold catalysts. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5785), 332–334.
A journal article with 3 authors
Achlioptas, D., D’Souza, R. M., & Spencer, J. (2009). Explosive percolation in random networks. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5920), 1453–1455.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Decker, R. B., Krimigis, S. M., Roelof, E. C., Hill, M. E., Armstrong, T. P., Gloeckler, G., et al. (2005). Voyager 1 in the foreshock, termination shock, and heliosheath. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5743), 2020–2024.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zepernick, H.-J., & Finger, A. (2005). Pseudo Random Signal Processing. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd,.
An edited book
Mařík, V., Lastra, J. L. M., & Skobelev, P. (Eds.). (2013). Industrial Applications of Holonic and Multi-Agent Systems: 6th International Conference, HoloMAS 2013, Prague, Czech Republic, August 26-28, 2013. Proceedings (Vol. 8062). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Al-Subaihin, A. A., Al-Khalifa, A. S., & Al-Khalifa, H. S. (2013). Accessibility of Mobile Web Apps by Screen Readers of Touch-Based Mobile Phones. In M. Matera & G. Rossi (Eds.), Trends in Mobile Web Information Systems: MobiWIS 2013 International Workshops, Paphos, Cyprus, August 26-28, 2013, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 35–43). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Psychological Record.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2015, April 27). Hypnotic Time-Lapse Videos Showcase The Seldom Seen Movements of Nature. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Traffic Congestion: Road Pricing Can Help Reduce Congestion, but Equity Concerns May Grow (No. GAO-12-119). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cervantes-Kelly, M. D. (2010). Translation and interpretation as a means to improve bilingual high school students’ English and Spanish academic language proficiency (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, October 9). Kickers Form Bond And Find Sorority. New York Times, p. D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holden 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Corma and Serna 2006; Holden 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Corma and Serna 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Decker et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Psychological Record
AbbreviationPsychol. Rec.
ISSN (print)0033-2933
ISSN (online)2163-3452
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Psychology

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