How to format your references using the The Psychological Record citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Psychological Record. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Livingston, D. M. (2009). Cancer. Complicated supercomplexes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5927), 602–603.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kelley, N. P., & Pyenson, N. D. (2015). Vertebrate evolution. Evolutionary innovation and ecology in marine tetrapods from the Triassic to the Anthropocene. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6232), aaa3716.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chou, C.-H., Chuang, J.-K., & Chen, F.-C. (2013). High-performance flexible waveguiding photovoltaics. Scientific reports, 3, 2244.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Li, X., Monks, B., Ge, Q., & Birnbaum, M. J. (2007). Akt/PKB regulates hepatic metabolism by directly inhibiting PGC-1alpha transcription coactivator. Nature, 447(7147), 1012–1016.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bisen, P. S., Debnath, M., & Prasad, G. B. K. S. (2012). Microbes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Brummelen, G. V., & Kinyon, M. (Eds.). (2005). Mathematics and the Historian’s Craft: The Kenneth O. May Lectures. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Harrison, L. J. (2014). Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Influences on School Transition. In B. Perry, S. Dockett, & A. Petriwskyj (Eds.), Transitions to School - International Research, Policy and Practice (pp. 61–74). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Psychological Record.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017, May 8). Tiny Crystals Reveal Earth’s First Continents Were Flat and Boring. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). HEW Audits of Federal Grants and Contracts Administered by Institutions of Higher Education (No. 105389). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chiu, Y.-Y. L. (2012). Multicultural educational policies: A correlational investigation of cultural competencies and feelings of inclusion (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007, January 7). New Plan Approved for Kings Park Property. New York Times, p. LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Livingston 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Kelley and Pyenson 2015; Livingston 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kelley and Pyenson 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Psychological Record
AbbreviationPsychol. Rec.
ISSN (print)0033-2933
ISSN (online)2163-3452
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Psychology

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