How to format your references using the The Psychological Record citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Psychological Record. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meyer, M. N. (2014). Misjudgements will drive social trials underground. Nature, 511(7509), 265.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mackem, S., & Lewandoski, M. (2011). Development. Limb cells don’t tell time. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6033), 1038–1039.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bean, J. L., Kempton, E. M.-R., & Homeier, D. (2010). A ground-based transmission spectrum of the super-Earth exoplanet GJ 1214b. Nature, 468(7324), 669–672.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Holden, L. G., Prochnow, C., Chang, Y. P., Bransteitter, R., Chelico, L., Sen, U., et al. (2008). Crystal structure of the anti-viral APOBEC3G catalytic domain and functional implications. Nature, 456(7218), 121–124.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heines, M. H. (2014). First to File. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Backhouse, R., Gibbons, J., Hinze, R., & Jeuring, J. (Eds.). (2007). Datatype-Generic Programming: International Spring School, SSDGP 2006, Nottingham, UK, April 24–27, 2006, Revised Lectures (Vol. 4719). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ji, Y., Qu, Z., Li, W., Xu, C., & Zhu, X. (2012). Study on the Screening for Chloronitrobenzene: Degrading Bacteria and Degradation of Chloronitrobenzene. In E. Zhu & S. Sambath (Eds.), Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering (pp. 23–29). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Psychological Record.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015, October 20). Students Have Developed An Electirc Wheelchair That Can Climb Stairs. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Global Warming: Limitations of General Circulation Models and Costs of Modeling Efforts (No. RCED-95-164). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sarkissian, L. N. (2009). An examination of course-level factors contributing to student success (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2012, March 28). Symbols for Satire. New York Times, p. B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Meyer 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Mackem and Lewandoski 2011; Meyer 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mackem and Lewandoski 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Holden et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Psychological Record
AbbreviationPsychol. Rec.
ISSN (print)0033-2933
ISSN (online)2163-3452
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Psychology

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