How to format your references using the Sleep Medicine: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep Medicine: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meier RP. Diminishing diversity of signed languages. Science 2000;288:1965b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hemingway J, Craig A. Parasitology. New ways to control malaria. Science 2004;303:1984–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ammon CJ, Kanamori H, Lay T. A great earthquake doublet and seismic stress transfer cycle in the central Kuril islands. Nature 2008;451:561–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bode M, Heide M, von Bergmann K, Ferriani P, Heinze S, Bihlmayer G, et al. Chiral magnetic order at surfaces driven by inversion asymmetry. Nature 2007;447:190–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bottjer DJ. Paleoecology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Abraham D, Handler C, Dashwood M, Coghlan G, editors. Translational Vascular Medicine: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment. London: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Orsi F. HCC. In: Van Cutsem E, Vogl TJ, Orsi F, Sobrero A, editors. Locoregional Tumor Therapy, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015, p. 31–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep Medicine: X.

Blog post
Andrew E. Magic mushrooms expand your mind and amplify your brain’s dreaming areas – here’s how. IFLScience 2014.’s-dreaming-areas-–-here’s-how/ (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Better Information Needed for Oversight and Evaluation of Selected Elementary and Secondary Education Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haws SW. A multilevel study of schools’ influences on adolescent substance use. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrman J. Blue State. New York Times 2016:MM50.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep Medicine: X
ISSN (print)2590-1427

Other styles