How to format your references using the Sleep Medicine: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep Medicine: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Hermann T. Non-coding RNA: Antibiotic tricks a switch. Nature 2015;526:650–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Heimann M, Reichstein M. Terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics and climate feedbacks. Nature 2008;451:289–92.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Core LJ, Waterfall JJ, Lis JT. Nascent RNA sequencing reveals widespread pausing and divergent initiation at human promoters. Science 2008;322:1845–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Lo S-T, Chen KY, Lin S-D, Wu J-Y, Lin TL, Yeh MR, et al. Controllable disorder in a hybrid nanoelectronic system: realization of a superconducting diode. Sci Rep 2013;3:2274.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Silva Elipe MV. LC-NMR and Other Hyphenated NMR Techniques. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
[1]
Fan R, editor. The Renaissance of Confucianism in Contemporary China. vol. 20. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Su C, Tian J, Chen Y. An Adjective-Based Embodied Knowledge Net. In: Zong C, Nie J-Y, Zhao D, Feng Y, editors. Natural Language Processing and Chinese Computing: Third CCF Conference, NLPCC 2014, Shenzhen, China, December 5-9, 2014. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014, p. 46–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep Medicine: X.

Blog post
[1]
Fang J. Rock From Russia Contains 30,000 Diamonds. IFLScience 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/red-and-green-rock-russia-contains-30000-diamonds/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. FCC: Ka-Band Satellite Application and Licensing Procedure. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Wuite J. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Three East Antarctic Outlet Glaciers and Their Floating Ice Tongues. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Philpott ML. Finding What I Need at the Mall. New York Times 2017:SR10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep Medicine: X
ISSN (print)2590-1427
Scope

Other styles