How to format your references using the Sleep Medicine Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep Medicine Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kirschner LS. Medicine. A unified cause for adrenal Cushing’s syndrome. Science 2014;344:804–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ma F, Wills BJ. Discovery of hidden blazars. Science 2001;292:2050–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Behn MD, Hirth G, Kelemen PB. Trench-parallel anisotropy produced by foundering of arc lower crust. Science 2007;317:108–11.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Smith JA, Seltzer GO, Farber DL, Rodbell DT, Finkel RC. Early local last glacial maximum in the tropical Andes. Science 2005;308:678–81.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coussy O. Poromechanics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Skidelsky R, Craig N, editors. Who Runs the Economy?: The Role of Power in Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Maffini MV, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM. Early Life Exposure to Bisphenol A and Breast Neoplasia. In: Russo J, editor. Environment and Breast Cancer, New York, NY: Springer; 2011, p. 55–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep Medicine Reviews.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Highlights From SpaceX’s Latest Historic Rocket Launch And Landing. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: GAO Assessment of DOD Responsive Launch Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wirtz Y. Strain Variation between the Monterey and Sisquoc Formations, Southern Santa Maria Basin, California, USA: Implications for Structural Assessment of Fold and Thrust Belts. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: News Analysis; The Center of Attention. New York Times 1992:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep Medicine Reviews
AbbreviationSleep Med. Rev.
ISSN (print)1087-0792
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physiology (medical)
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles