How to format your references using the Sleep Medicine Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep Medicine Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Basu P. Vaccines on trial. Nature 2005;436:484.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fredrick K, Noller HF. Catalysis of ribosomal translocation by sparsomycin. Science 2003;300:1159–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
Santer BD, Wigley TML, Taylor KE. The reproducibility of observational estimates of surface and atmospheric temperature change. Science 2011;334:1232–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Osuna CE, Lim S-Y, Kublin JL, Apps R, Chen E, Mota TM, et al. Publisher Correction: Evidence that CD32a does not mark the HIV-1 latent reservoir. Nature 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cardon A, Itmi M. New Autonomous Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Marsalek J, Stancalie G, Balint G, editors. Transboundary Floods: Reducing Risks Through Flood Management. vol. 72. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Vitasek K, Manrodt K, Kling J. U.S. Department of Energy Transforms Weapons Wasteland to Wildlife Site. In: Manrodt K, Kling J, editors. Vested: How P&G, McDonald’s and Microsoft are Redefining Winning in Business Relationships, New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2012, p. 61–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep Medicine Reviews.

Blog post
Luntz S. White Roofs Cut Energy Consumption In Cool Climates Too. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Hurricane Katrina: Army Corps of Engineers Contract for Mississippi Classrooms. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCarter KM. The effect of auditory stimulation on learners with different learning styles. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lasdun J. Odd Coupling. New York Times 2017:BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep Medicine Reviews
AbbreviationSleep Med. Rev.
ISSN (print)1087-0792
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physiology (medical)
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles