How to format your references using the Sleep Medicine Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep Medicine Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Gillett NP. Climate modelling: Northern Hemisphere circulation. Nature 2005;437:496.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Parnell RJ, Buchanan-Smith HM. Animal behaviour. An unusual social display by gorillas. Nature 2001;412:294.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Hollingsworth RG, Armstrong JW, Campbell E. Caffeine as a repellent for slugs and snails. Nature 2002;417:915–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Heun P, Laroche T, Shimada K, Furrer P, Gasser SM. Chromosome dynamics in the yeast interphase nucleus. Science 2001;294:2181–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Bielecki TR, Brigo D, Patras F. Credit Risk Frontiers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
[1]
Jackson M, Nelson D, Stirk S, editors. Database: Enterprise, Skills and Innovation: 22nd British National Conference on Databases, BNCOD 22, Sunderland, UK, July 5-7, 2005. Proceedings. vol. 3567. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Lulle A, King R. Psychosocial Well-Being, Erotic Agency, and Intimate Citizenship. In: King R, editor. Ageing, Gender, and Labour Migration, New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016, p. 79–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep Medicine Reviews.

Blog post
[1]
Andrews R. Germany To Reduce Carbon Emissions By 95 Percent by 2050. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/germany-reduce-carbon-emissions-95-percent-2050/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Continuing Professional Education Study: Budget Analysts in the Federal Government, GS-560 Series. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Klepper EM. Andragogy and Workplace Relationships: A Mixed-Methods Study Exploring Employees’ Perceptions of Their Relationships with Their Supervisors. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Greenhouse L. Court Veteran Remembers A Scary Start. New York Times 2006:A31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep Medicine Reviews
AbbreviationSleep Med. Rev.
ISSN (print)1087-0792
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physiology (medical)
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
Neurology

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