How to format your references using the Sleep Medicine Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep Medicine Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Hunten DM. Atmospheric science. An iron deficiency in polar mesospheric clouds. Science 2004;304:395–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Chhowalla M, Amaratunga GA. Thin films of fullerene-like MoS2 nanoparticles with ultra-low friction and wear. Nature 2000;407:164–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Lohrer AM, Thrush SF, Gibbs MM. Bioturbators enhance ecosystem function through complex biogeochemical interactions. Nature 2004;431:1092–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Pfleiderer C, Reznik D, Pintschovius L, Löhneysen HV, Garst M, Rosch A. Partial order in the non-Fermi-liquid phase of MnSi. Nature 2004;427:227–31.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Hoskins BJ, James IN. Fluid Dynamics of the Midlatitude Atmosphere. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
[1]
Huq SMI. The Soils of Bangladesh. vol. 1. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Dörfler P, Sick M, Coutu A. High-Frequency Vortex Phenomena. In: Sick M, Coutu A, editors. Flow-Induced Pulsation and Vibration in Hydroelectric Machinery: Engineer’s Guidebook for Planning, Design and Troubleshooting, London: Springer; 2013, p. 111–27.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep Medicine Reviews.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. How Psychology Can Help Us Solve Climate Change. IFLScience 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Research: Airport Cooperative Research Program Addresses Many Needs but Could Enhance Transparency and Clarify Scope of Research Role. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Jenkins MM. Clinical decision-making and pediatric bipolar disorder. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Paulson M. Uma Thurman to Star On Broadway This Fall. New York Times 2017:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep Medicine Reviews
AbbreviationSleep Med. Rev.
ISSN (print)1087-0792
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physiology (medical)
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
Neurology

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