How to format your references using the Sleep Medicine Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep Medicine Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cohen JY. Dopamine and serotonin signals for reward across time scales. Science 2015;350:47.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shields GA, Kasting JF. Palaeoclimatology: evidence for hot early oceans? Nature 2007;447:E1; discussion E1-2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bates ME, Simmons JA, Zorikov TV. Bats use echo harmonic structure to distinguish their targets from background clutter. Science 2011;333:627–30.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li Y, Su L, Shou C, Yu C, Deng J, Fang Y. Surface-enhanced molecular spectroscopy (SEMS) based on perfect-absorber metamaterials in the mid-infrared. Sci Rep 2013;3:2865.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Egan WF. Advanced Frequency Synthesis by Phase Lock. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Tymieniecka A-T, Trutty-Coohill P, editors. The Cosmos and the Creative Imagination. vol. 119. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Calabretto S. Ontology Alignment in the Urban Domain. In: Métral C, Teller J, Tweed C, editors. Ontologies in Urban Development Projects, London: Springer; 2011, p. 55–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep Medicine Reviews.

Blog post
Andrew E. Watch Hundreds Of Gnat Larvae Slither Together Like A Snake. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Financing: Issues and Options in Deciding to Reinstate or Replace the Airline Ticket Tax. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Etchberger JF. The cis-regulatory logic of gustatory neuron development in Caenorhabditis elegans. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K, Appelbaum B. Yellen and Trump Aide Are Said to Be on Shortlist for New Leader of the Fed. New York Times 2017:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep Medicine Reviews
AbbreviationSleep Med. Rev.
ISSN (print)1087-0792
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physiology (medical)
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles